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dc.contributor.authorSecor, Patrick R.
dc.contributor.authorJennings, Laura K.
dc.contributor.authorJames, Garth A.
dc.contributor.authorKirker, Kelly R.
dc.contributor.authordeLancey Pulcini, Elinor
dc.contributor.authorMcInnerney, Kathleen
dc.contributor.authorGerlach, Robin
dc.contributor.authorLivinghouse, Tom
dc.contributor.authorHilmer, Jonathan K.
dc.contributor.authorBothner, Brian
dc.contributor.authorFleckman, Philip
dc.contributor.authorOlerud, John E.
dc.contributor.authorStewart, Philip S.
dc.identifier.citationSecor, Patrick R., Laura K. Jennings, Garth A. James, Kelly R. Kirker, Elinor deLancey Pulcini, Kate McInnerney, Robin Gerlach, et al. “Phevalin (aureusimine B)Production by Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilm and Impacts on Human Keratinocyte Gene Expression.” Edited by Paul Sumby. PLoS ONE 7, no. 7 (July 13, 2012): e40973. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040973.en_US
dc.description.abstractStaphylococcus aureus biofilms are associated with chronic skin infections and are orders of magnitude more resistant to antimicrobials and host responses. S. aureus contains conserved nonribosomal peptide synthetases that produce the cyclic dipeptides tyrvalin and phevalin (aureusimine A and B, respectively). The biological function of these compounds has been speculated to be involved in virulence factor gene expression in S. aureus, protease inhibition in eukaryotic cells, and interspecies bacterial communication. However, the exact biological role of these compounds is unknown. Here, we report that S. aureus biofilms produce greater amounts of phevalin than their planktonic counterparts. Phevalin had no obvious impact on the extracellular metabolome of S. aureus as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. When administered to human keratinocytes, phevalin had a modest effect on gene expression. However, conditioned medium from S. aureus spiked with phevalin amplified differences in keratinocyte gene expression compared to conditioned medium alone. Phevalin may be exploited as potential biomarker and/or therapeutic target for chronic, S. aureus biofilm-based infections.en_US
dc.rightsCC BY 4.0
dc.titlePhevalin (aureusimine B) Production by Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm and Impacts on Human Keratinocyte Gene Expressionen_US
mus.citation.journaltitlePLoS ONEen_US
mus.identifier.categoryChemical & Material Sciencesen_US
mus.identifier.categoryEngineering & Computer Scienceen_US
mus.relation.collegeCollege of Engineeringen_US
mus.relation.departmentChemical & Biological Engineering.en_US
mus.relation.departmentCenter for Biofilm Engineering.
mus.relation.universityMontana State University - Bozemanen_US
mus.contributor.orcidBothner, Brian|0000-0003-1295-9609en_US
mus.contributor.orcidSecor, Patrick R.|0000-0001-7123-3037en_US
mus.contributor.orcidStewart, Philip S.|0000-0001-7773-8570en_US

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