Mortality Dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Immatures in Maize
Varella, Andrea Corrêa
Menezes-Netto, Alexandre Carlos
de Souza Alonso, Juliana Duarte
Ferreira Caixeta, Daniel
Peterson, Robert K. D.
Fernandes, Odair Aparecido
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We characterized the dynamics of mortality factors affecting immature developmental stages of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Multiple decrement life tables for egg and early larval stages of S. frugiperda in maize (Zea mays L.) fields were developed with and without augmentative releases of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) from 2009 to 2011. Total egg mortality ranged from 73 to 81% and the greatest egg mortality was due to inviability, dislodgement, and predation. Parasitoids did not cause significant mortality in egg or early larval stages and the releases of T. remus did not increase egg mortality. Greater than 95% of early larvae died from predation, drowning, and dislodgment by rainfall. Total mortality due to these factors was largely irreplaceable. Results indicate that a greater effect in reducing generational survival may be achieved by adding mortality to the early larval stage of S. frugiperda.
Varella, Andrea Corrêa, Alexandre Carlos Menezes-Netto, Juliana Duarte de Souza Alonso, Daniel Ferreira Caixeta, Robert K. D. Peterson, and Odair Aparecido Fernandes. “Mortality Dynamics of Spodoptera Frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Immatures in Maize.” Edited by Dawn Sywassink Luthe. PLOS ONE 10, no. 6 (June 22, 2015): e0130437. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0130437.