Abiotic and biotic factors affecting the replication and pathogenicity of bee viruses
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Bees are important pollinators of plants in both agricultural and non-agricultural landscapes. Recent losses of both managed and wild bee species have negative impacts on crop production and ecosystem diversity. Therefore, in order to mitigate bee losses, it is important to identify the factors most responsible. Multiple factors including pathogens, agrochemical exposure, lack of quality forage, and reduced habitat affect bee health. Pathogen prevalence is one factor that has been associated with colony losses. Numerous pathogens infect bees including fungi, protists, bacteria, and viruses, the majority of which are RNA viruses including several that infect multiple bee species. RNA viruses readily infect bees, yet there is limited understanding of their impacts on bee health, particularly in the context of other stressors. Herein we review the influence environmental factors have on the replication and pathogenicity of bee viruses and identify research areas that require further investigation.
McMenamin, Alexander J , Laura M Brutscher, William Glenny, and Michelle L. Flenniken. "Abiotic and biotic factors affecting the replication and pathogenicity of bee viruses." Current Opinion in Insect Science 16 (April 2016): 14-21. DOI: 10.1016/j.cois.2016.04.009.