gD-Independent Superinfection Exclusion of Alphaherpesviruses
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Many viruses have the capacity to prevent a cell from being infected by a second virus, often termed superinfection exclusion. Alphaherpesviruses, including the human pathogen herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and the animal herpesvirus pseudorabies virus (PRV), encode a membrane-bound glycoprotein, gD, that can interfere with subsequent virion entry. We sought to characterize the timing and mechanism of superinfection exclusion during HSV-1 and PRV infection. To this end, we utilized recombinant viruses expressing fluorescent protein (FP) markers of infection that allowed the visualization of viral infections by microscopy and flow cytometry as well as the differentiation of viral progeny. Our results demonstrated the majority of HSV-1- and PRV-infected cells establish superinfection exclusion by 2 h postinfection. The modification of viral infections by virion inactivation and phosphonoacetic acid, cycloheximide, and actinomycin D treatments indicated new protein synthesis is needed to establish superinfection exclusion. Primary infection with gene deletion PRV recombinants identified that new gD expression is not required to establish superinfection exclusion of a secondary viral inoculum. We also identified the timing of coinfection events during axon-to-cell spread, with most occurring within a 2-h window, suggesting a role for cellular superinfection exclusion during neuroinvasive spread of infection. In summary, we have characterized a gD-independent mechanism of superinfection exclusion established by two members of the alphaherpesvirus family and identified a potential role of exclusion during the pathogenic spread of infection.
Criddle, A., T. Thornburg, I. Kochetkova, M. DePartee, and M. P. Taylor. “gD-Independent Superinfection Exclusion of Alphaherpesviruses.” Edited by R. M. Sandri-Goldin. Journal of Virology 90, no. 8 (February 3, 2016): 4049–4058. doi:10.1128/jvi.00089-16.