Scholarly Work - Sociology and Anthropology

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    School-Level Bureaucrats: How High School Counselors Inhabit the Conflicting Logics of Their Work
    (SAGE Publications, 2023-10) Blake, Mary Kate
    Through three years of training, school counselors build a professional identity based on providing social-emotional, academic, and postsecondary guidance to students. But school counselors face conflict in meeting these expectations in a bureaucratic environment that asks them to prioritize efficiency when meeting with students rather than building one-on-one relationships. I draw from interviews with high school counselors and school personnel and a year of observations to study the institutional logics that govern their work and use inhabited institutional theory to study how time scarcity shaped how counselors interpreted these conflicting macro-level logics in their micro-level interactions. The counselors in this study developed patterns of practice that helped them manage this conflict, negotiating but eventually settling with nonideal strategies in the best way they could with the resources made available to them. Efforts to reject the efficiency model were met with pushback from school leaders and unintended consequences for counselors and students alike. The conflict inherent in their work left little room for the mental health or postsecondary counseling they expect and are trained to provide.
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    Does Where You Work and What You Do Matter? Testing the Role of Organizational Context and Job Type for Future Study of Occupation-Based Secondary Trauma Intervention Development
    (Sage Journals, 2023-12) Knight, Kelly E.; Ellis, Colter; Miller, Tristan; Neu, Joshua; Helfrich, Leah
    Organizational context (e.g., criminal justice, community-based, and healthcare) and job type (e.g., police, social workers, and healthcare providers) may impact the extent of occupation-based secondary trauma (OBST). Survey data collected from a multiphase community-based participatory research project were analyzed from a variety of professionals, who were likely to “encounter the consequences of traumatic events as part of their professional responsibilities” (n = 391, women = 55%, White = 92%). Results document high trauma exposure (adverse childhood experiences [ACEs] and workplace) and OBST-related outcomes (Maslach Burnout Inventory, Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale, post-traumatic stress disorder symptom checklist for DSM-5) for the entire sample with important differences across organizational context and job type. Using multivariate regression, the strongest determinants of suffering, however, were not related to a provider’s specific profession but to their number of years on the job and their ACEs (e.g., adjusted R2 = 0.23, b = 2.01, p < .001). Likewise, the most protective factors were not profession specific but rather the provider’s age and perceived effectiveness of OBST-related training (e.g., b = 2.26, p < .001). These findings inform intervention development and have implications for rural and other often under-resourced areas, where the same OBST-related intervention could potentially serve many different types of providers and organizations.
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    Drivelines, hunting blinds, effigies and intercept hunting strategies in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA
    (Liverpool University Press, 2022) Lee, Craig M; Neeley, Michael; Horton, Elizabeth; McWethy, David B.
    This paper shares a description of cairn lines and hunting blinds in association with an ice patch in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Until now no definitive stone features, including drivelines and hunting blinds, have been reported in association with Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem ice patches; however, such features are known from ice patches in northern North America, eg Yukon Territory. In the system reported here, the ice patch is presumed to be an animal attractant with the drivelines and blinds positioned to serve as intercepts. The paper also shares a brief report of a stone effigy of a probable bighorn sheep that appears to be associated with an ice patch. Such features are emblematic of spiritual provisioning in the alpine.
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    Developing a Response to Secondary Trauma for American Indian and Rural Service Providers
    (The Ohio State University Libraries, 2022-05) Knight, Kelly E.; Ellis, Colter; Matt Salois, Emily
    How can victim service providers, the organizations they work for, and the communities they serve help respond to the issue of occupation-based secondary trauma? Over the last few years, federal agencies in the United States have spent millions in research and programming to answer this important scientific and policy question. The current study builds on this work by describing and evaluating a community-based participatory research project focused on finding manageable, effective, sustainable, and ethical ways to respond to occupation-based secondary trauma in two separate communities: a rural American Indian community, Blackfeet Tribal Nation, and a predominantly white county in Montana, Gallatin County, United States. Findings from evaluation questionnaires (n=178; 80.10% women; 64.60% American Indian; 29.14% White) representing a wide range of occupations document that: (1) the implementation of the project was successful; (2) toolkits created for the project were useful to both individual participants and organizations; (3) training outcomes improved significantly; and (4) findings were consistent across the two different community contexts. Contributions, lessons learned, and future directions are discussed.
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    Determinants of Poor Health Among Workers in Criminal Justice, Community and Social Services, and Healthcare: Adverse Childhood Experiences, Workplace Trauma Exposure, and Gender Differences
    (Informa UK Limited, 2021-12) Knight, Kelly E.; Ellis, Colter; Neu, Joshua; Miller, Tristan; Talcott, Amy K.
    Adverse childhood experiences and workplace trauma exposure are associated with poor health. However, their differential impacts by gender are difficult to assess in studies of organizations with gender imbalances (e.g., law enforcement officers are more likely men whereas social workers are more likely women). Using a community-based participatory research framework, this study examines trauma exposure, mental and physical health, and substance use in an occupationally diverse sample (n = 391). Trauma exposure was high and associated with poor health. Even though women experienced more adversity, they were often more resilient than men. Implications for trauma-informed workplaces are discussed.
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    Secondary Trauma in the Workplace: Tools for Awareness, Self-Care, and Organizational Responses in Montana
    (Montana State University, 2018) Clements, Erin; Ellis, Colter; Knight, Kelly E.; McLane, Richard; Osterloth, Katharine; Powell, Christina; Saverud, Anna; Sherstad, Alanna; Talcotta, Amy Katherine; Young, Kelsen
    This book is written for Montana’s victim service providers—the people who have chosen to dedicate their professional lives to helping the survivors of trauma. As providers, we are the ones working day in and day out with those who have endured some of the worst life has to offer, including sexual assault, child maltreatment, domestic violence, elder abuse, hate crimes, and other forms of violence, as well as traumas related to substance abuse, housing insecurity, accidents, natural disasters, and war. For those of us in this line of work, secondary trauma—an umbrella term for the trauma that results from repeated empathetic engagement with traumatized populations—is a very real and very serious issue. Secondary trauma can result in a whole assortment of physical and emotional issues, as well as contribute to staff turnover and shortages in providers. Like most providers working in Montana and across the nation, you may never have been taught that secondary trauma is a normal byproduct of your work, or been advised how you and the organization that employs you can effectively manage it. We want to change that.
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    Operational efficiency, patient composition and regional context of U.S. health centers: Associations with access to early prenatal care and low birth weight
    (2019-04) Thorsen, Maggie L.; Thorsen, Andreas H.; McGarvey, Ronald G.
    Community health centers (CHCs) provide comprehensive medical services to medically under-served Americans, helping to reduce health disparities. This study aimed to identify the unique compositions and contexts of CHCs to better understand variation in access to early prenatal care and rates of low birth weights (LBW). Data include CHC-level data from the Uniform Data System, and regional-level data from the US Census American Community Survey and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. First, latent class analysis was conducted to identify unobserved subgroups of CHCs. Second, data envelopment analysis was performed to evaluate the operational efficiency of CHCs. Third, we used generalized linear models to examine the associations between the CHC subgroups, efficiency, and perinatal outcomes. Seven classes of CHCs were identified, including two rural classes, one suburban, one with large centers serving poor minorities in low poverty areas, and three urban classes. Many of these classes were characterized by the racial compositions of their patients. Findings indicate that CHCs serving white patients in rural areas have greater access to early prenatal care. Health centers with greater efficiency have lower rates of LBW, as do those who serve largely white patient populations in rural areas. CHCs serving poor racial minorities living in low-poverty areas had particularly low levels of access to early prenatal care and high rates of LBW. Findings highlight that significant diversity exists in the sociodemographic composition and regional context of US health centers, in ways that are associated with their operations, delivery of care, and health outcomes. Results from this study highlight that while the provision of early prenatal care and the efficiency with which a health center operates may improve the health of the women served by CHCs and their babies, the underlying social and economic conditions facing patients ultimately have a larger association with their health.
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    Disruptions, Dislocations, and Inequalities: Latino Families Surviving the Global Economy
    (2010-06) Schmalzbauer, Leah
    This Article draws on field research with Honduran and Mexican transnational families and the transnational family literature to explore how global inequality is influencing gender and class relations within poor migrant families. This Article begins with an overview of the relationship between globalization, Latinola migration, and transnational family formation. The Article then details and analyzes the intersections of transnational care arrangements and the gendered and classed experiences of individual transnational family members. This Article argues that global inequality, specifically the wage gap between the Global North and the Global South, has direct implications for inequalities within Latinola families. Finally, this Article suggests that transnational families are resilient, and yet gender expectations and the economic crisis have spawned new gender, generational, and class inequalities that could potentially threaten family well-being.
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    Advancing a Model of Secondary Trauma: Consequences for Victim Service Providers
    (2018-05) Ellis, Colter; Knight, Kelly E.
    A burgeoning body of scholarship is attempting to understand, normalize, and ameliorate the emotional strain of victim service provision. The literature, however, has yet to fully theorize the hazardous process of empathetic engagement with victims. As a result, concepts, mechanisms, and outcomes are often conflated, making it difficult to understand the etiological path of this occupational risk. The goal of this article is to attend to this gap by accomplishing three objectives. The first is to engage with the perspective of symbolic interaction to theoretically ground a conceptual model of secondary trauma. The second objective is to propose a model of secondary trauma that acknowledges its inherently interactional, interpretive, and, thus, vicariously transmissible nature. The third objective is to begin the work of empirically supporting this model with data from a sample of victim service providers ( n = 94) collected using in-depth interviews, focus groups, ethnographic participant observation, and community-based participatory research. Our findings suggest that victim service provision, in the form of empathetic engagement, can blur the boundary between self and other, and lead to a sense of damage in the self that manifests in unreliable self-agency, untrustworthy coherence of other, desensitized self-affectivity, and fractured self-history. This work has significant implications. We illustrate an important paradox by showing how victim service provision can be helpful to victims but harmful to providers. We also offer a pathway for reducing this harm. By specifying mechanisms of damage, the model can be used to inform policies and practices supportive of victim service providers' health and well-being.
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    Vulnerability of dryland agricultural regimes to economic and climatic change
    (2018) Lawrence, Patrick G.; Maxwell, Bruce D.; Rew, Lisa J.; Ellis, Colter; Bekkerman, Anton
    Large-scale agricultural systems are central to food production in North America, but their ubiquity could be threatened by vulnerability to economic and climatic stressors during the 21st century. Prior research has focused on understanding the influence of climatic changes on physiological processes in these systems and has increasingly recognized that other factors such as social, economic, and ecological variation and the interaction among these factors may cause unexpected outcomes. We assess the vulnerability of large-scale agricultural systems to variation in multiple stressors and investigate alternative adaptation strategies under novel conditions. We examine dryland farms in Montana’s northern Great Plains (NGP), which represent large-scale semiarid agricultural systems that are likely to be affected by climate change. Farmers in the NGP have experienced three distinct periods of economic- and drought-related stressors since the 1970s, primarily driven by uncertainty in soil moisture, but at times amplified by uncertainty in nitrogen fertilizer and wheat prices. We seek to better understand how farmers evaluate and respond to these conditions. The results indicate that although farmers perceived few alternative agronomic options for adapting to drought, strategies for adapting to high input prices were more plentiful. Furthermore, we find that increasing the overall resilience of dryland agricultural systems to economic and climatic uncertainty requires intrinsic valuation of crop rotations and their field-specific response to inputs.
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    School Context and American Indian Substance Use
    (2017-12) Eitle, David; Thorsen, Maggie L.; Eitle, Tamela McNulty
    The present study extends prior research exploring the role of school contextual factors in predicting individual adolescent substance use by examining how a school's racial composition is associated with American Indian adolescent tobacco and marijuana use. Using a subsample of 523 American Indian students from the restricted use Add Health data, we consider both individual and school contextual factors across 99 schools. Our results suggest that a school's racial composition is associated with individual tobacco and marijuana use among American Indian youth, but in different ways depending upon the substance. Our findings illustrate the importance of extending research on the correlates of substance use for racial and ethnic minorities beyond studies examining African-Americans and/or Hispanics.
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    Microcores and microliths in Northwestern Plains and Rocky Mountain front lithic assemblages
    (2016-07) Lee, Craig M.; Neeley, Michael; Mitchell, Mark D.; Kornfeld, Marcel; O'Connor, Crae
    Microcores and microliths have been identified in archaeological sites in Montana, Wyoming, and North Dakota. While clearly the product of patterned reduction yielding flakes with roughly parallel sides, the cores seldom produced regular flake removals, suggesting a high degree of variability in the resulting microliths. This irregular pattern of reduction contrasts with classic microblade cores from higher latitudes, where uniformity of microblades was desired. When noted by field archaeologists, microcores are variously described as conical or circular scrapers as well as microcores or microblade cores. They occur in low frequencies in several time periods and are seldom identified with associated production debitage let alone microliths. This article examines microlith manufacture and microcore discard in the Northwestern Plains and adjacent regions and proposes that the technology fulfilled a specialized role in the organization of lithic technology linked to the infrequent manufacture of specialty items.
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    Hydraulic fracturing: Assessing self-reported familiarity and the contributions of selected sources to self-reported knowledge
    (2017-01) Theodori, Gene L.; Ellis, Colter
    Data collected from a random sample of individuals in two counties in the Eagle Ford Shale region of South Texas to examine (a) respondents’ self-reported familiarity with the process of hydraulic fracturing and (b) the associations between the contributions of information sources to self-reported knowledge about hydraulic fracturing and self-reported levels of familiarity with the process of hydraulic fracturing. The results of this study revealed that survey respondents in the Eagle Ford Shale region of Texas are more familiar with the process of hydraulic fracturing than has been reported in other studies. Moreover, the findings indicated that self-reported levels of familiarity with the process of hydraulic fracturing were positively associated with certain sources of information. Among those sources that reached statistical significance, the strongest contributor to respondents’ self-reported familiarity with hydraulic fracturing was information from the oil/natural gas industry.
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    Explaining the Association between Gender and Substance Use among American Indian Adolescents: An Application of Power-control Theory
    (2015-12) Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David
    This study evaluates the utility of Hagan's power-control theory for explaining substance use behaviors for a sample of American Indian (AI) adolescent males and females. Consistent with the theory, we found that patriarchal family form and the affective bond between father and daughter were significant predictors of female substance use behaviors. Compared with results from an analysis of non-Hispanic (NH) whites, these results reveal the importance of testing generalist explanations of deviant behavior across racial and ethnic groups. Our findings encourage a more in-depth consideration of the gendered nature of work, its association with socialization and control in AI families, and its impact on gender differences in substance use and delinquent behaviors.
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    Revisiting the Time Trade-Off Hypothesis: Work, Organized Activities, and Academics During College
    (2014-11) Greene, Kaylin M.; Maggs, Jennifer L.
    How adolescents spend their time has long-term implications for their educational, health, and labor market outcomes, yet surprisingly little research has explored the time use of students across days and semesters. The current study used longitudinal daily diary data from a sample of college students attending a large public university in the Northeastern US (n = 726, Mage = 18.4) that was followed for 14 days within each of 7 semesters (for up to 98 diary days per student). The study had two primary aims. The first aim was to explore demographic correlates of employment time, organized activity time, and academic time. The second aim was to provide a rigorous test of the time trade-off hypothesis, which suggests that students will spend less time on academics when they spend more time on employment and extracurricular activities. The results demonstrated that time use varied by gender, parental education, and race/ethnicity. Furthermore, the results from multi-level models provided some support for the time trade-off hypothesis, although associations varied by the activity type and whether the day was a weekend. More time spent on employment was linked to less time spent on academics across days and semesters whereas organized activities were associated with less time on academics at the daily level only. The negative associations between employment and academics were most pronounced on weekdays. These results suggest that students may balance certain activities across days, whereas other activities may be in competition over longer time frames (i.e., semesters).
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    Adult social roles and alcohol use among American Indians
    (2014-09) Greene, Kaylin M.; Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David
    American Indians are disproportionately burdened by alcohol-related problems. Yet, research exploring predictors of alcohol use among American Indians has been limited by cross-sectional designs and reservation-based samples. Guided by a life course developmental perspective, the current study used a subsample of American Indians (n = 927) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to explore alcohol use (current drinking, usual number of drinks, and binge drinking) among this population. We examined whether adult social roles (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, parenthood, college enrollment, and full-time work) were linked to the rise and fall of alcohol use. Multi-level models demonstrated that adult social roles were linked to alcohol use at the within- and between-person levels. Becoming a parent was linked to a lower likelihood of being a current drinker, fewer alcoholic drinks, and less frequent binge drinking. Transitioning to full-time work was associated with a higher likelihood of being a current drinker and more frequent binge drinking. Results point to the importance of exploring within-group trajectories of alcohol use and highlight the protective and risky nature of adult social roles among American Indians.
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