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Exotic Grass Invasion Increases Forage Productivity and Reduces Diversity of a High Altitude Mesic Grassland
(Montana State University, 2021-02) Weaver, T; Bao, S
Mesic temperate rangeland, e.g. from the North American mixed grass prairie, Rocky Mountain grasslands and southern hemisphere continents is being invaded by the exotic rhizomatous grasses, Poa pratensis and Bromus inermis. To project the effects of their invasion on one grassland, we compared community properties in- and outside of clones invading a level environmentally homogeneous meadow representative of our high altitude fescue grasslands. Yields increased from native vegetation dominated by Festuca idahoenis (Feid, x= 96 gm/m2) through exotic vegetation dominated by Poa (x= 158 gm/m2) to Brome (x= 258 gm/m2) with little difference in forage quality (protein content). Some, e.g. a grazier, might therefore view the change as beneficial. Measurement of community composition in the three communities showed a considerable impoverishment of the native fescue (Feid) community by exotic invasion, an impoverishment understated by measured reduction in species richness [i.e. from Feid (16-12 species per 1.13m2) through Poa (11) to Brome (4 ); species evenness (Simpson) [i.e. from 88-84 to 81 to 42 ]; and life-form evenness (%forb) [i.e, Feid (42-34%) through Poa (23%) to Brome (5%). The impoverishment probably resulted first, from competitive exclusion of natives by lack of soil resources captured by exotics (whose entry surely demonstrated a superior capacity to acquire water and nutrients) and second, for natives associated with taller Brome, from a reduction of ground-level light, a deficiency confirmed by etiolation of the natives. Conservationists will surely decry the losses. Due to the inexorable rhizomatous spread of Poa and Brome and the resultant impossibility of controlling them, we deduce that managers should accept the foresee-able [vegetation] type-conversion and develop methods for managing/using the new vegetation- - a resigned reaction paralleling the response necessary for other anthropogenic factors: urbanization, N-supplementation, pollution and climate change. We expect parallel responses in other mesic grasslands. Sampling and statistics completed 2014- 20l5. 1st draft reviewed 2016.
An Overview of the Impact of Tillage and Cropping Systems on Soil Health in Agricultural Practices
(Hindawi Limited, 2023-05) Bishnu Angon, Prodipto; Anjum, Nafisa; Masuma Akter, Mst.; KC, Shreejana; Parvin Suma, Rucksana; Jannat, Sadia
There is currently a demand to grow more crops in less area as a result of urbanization’s reduction of agricultural land. As a result, soil fertility is gradually declining. To maintain soil fertility, various management methods are used in modern times. The conventional tillage method is a traditional tillage method that damages soil structure, but zero tillage can improve soil quality. By maintaining soil structure with no-tillage, biological processes are frequently improved and microbial biodiversity is increased. This review helps to understand the role of tillage as well as cropping systems in increasing crop production by maintaining soil fertility. For agricultural production and environmental protection to be sustained for future generations, soil quality must be maintained and improved in continuous cropping systems. The nodulation, nitrogen fixation, and microbial community are all impacted by different cropping systems and tillage methods. They also alter soil properties including structure, aeration, and water utilization. The impact of tillage and cropping system practices such as zero and conventional tillage systems, crop rotation, intercropping, cover cropping, cultivator combinations, and prairie strip techniques on soil fertility is carefully summarized in this review. The result highlights that conservational tillage is much better than conventional tillage for soil quality and different aspects of different tillage and their interaction. On the other hand, intercropping, crop rotation, cover cropping, etc., increase the crop yield more than monocropping. Different types of cropping systems are highlighted along with their advantages and disadvantages. Using zero tillage can increase crop production as well as maintain soil fertility which is highlighted in this review. In terms of cropping systems and tillage management, our main goal is to improve crop yield while minimizing harm to the soil’s health.
A Comprehensive Assessment of Verticillium Wilt of Potato: Present Status and Future Prospective
(EScience Press, 2023-06) KC, Shreejana; Poudel, Amrit; Oli, Dipiza; Ghimire, Shirish; Angon Bishnu, Prodipto; Shafiul Islam, MD
The fungal disease Verticillium wilt is a soil-borne pathogen that is caused by Verticillium dahliae. This disease affects a wide range of crops and can cause significant yield losses. Recent findings suggest that Verticillium wilt has been affecting potato crops in abundant domains around the global world, including in North America, parts of Europe, and Asia. In some cases, the disease has been observed in fields where it has not been previously reported, indicating that it has been spreading. Farmers and researchers are working to manage the disease through a variety of measures, including rotation of crops, the use of resistant varieties of potato developed from resistant strains, and the application of fungicides. However, the potency of these measures can vary depending on the ferocity of the disease and the local growing circumstances. Overall, the recent findings of Verticillium wilt in potato underscore the importance of continued monitoring and research to better understand the disease and develop effective management strategies. This review has highlighted the up-to-date information on Verticillium wilt and management strategies. The study also helps the scientific community understand this devastating plant disease by offering a thorough review of the situation.
Interplay of plant pathogens and host defenses: Unveiling the mechanisms and strategies for crop protection
(Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy, 2024-03) Poudel, Amrit; KC, Shreejana
Plant pathogens, encompassing a diverse array of microbes including fungi, nematodes, protozoa, bacteria, and viruses, represent a significant threat to agricultural stability by compromising plant health. These microorganisms engage in a complex battle against plant immune systems, leading to diseases that can drastically diminish crop yields, degrade product quality, and in extreme cases, cause total crop failure. A comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms underlying plant infection, the specific pathogens involved, and the strategy for effective prevention is crucial for agricultural sustainability. This review paper provides a detailed examination of the multifaceted interactions between plant pathogens and their hosts, focusing on the entry mechanisms, symptom development, and prevention strategies against plant diseases. Major findings reveal the intricate ways pathogens interact with plant immune responses, the critical role of environmental factors in disease outbreaks, and the effectiveness of integrated disease management approaches. The paper concludes with a novel perspective, emphasizing the urgent need for sustainable, science-based strategies to enhance plant resistance, safeguard food security, and mitigate the economic consequences of plant pathogenic diseases. This synthesis not only advances our understanding of plant pathology but also sets a framework for future research directions in plant disease management.
Sources, effects and present perspectives of heavy metals contamination: Soil, plants and human food chain
(Elsevier BV, 2024-04) Bishnu Agnon, Prodipto; Shafiul Islam, M.D.; KC, Shreejana; Das, Arpan; Anjum, Nafisa; Poudel, Amrit; Akter Suchi, Shaharia
Heavy metal (HM) poisoning of agricultural soils poses a serious risk to plant life, human health, and global food supply. When HM levels in agricultural soils get to dangerous levels, it harms crop health and yield. Chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) are the main heavy metals. The environment contains these metals in varying degrees, such as in soil, food, water, and even the air. These substances damage plants and alter soil characteristics, which lowers crop yield. Crop types, growing circumstances, elemental toxicity, developmental stage, soil physical and chemical properties, and the presence and bioavailability of heavy metals (HMs) in the soil solution are some of the factors affecting the amount of HM toxicity in crops. By interfering with the normal structure and function of cellular components, HMs can impede various metabolic and developmental processes. Humans are exposed to numerous serious diseases by consuming these affected plant products. Exposure to certain metals can harm the kidneys, brain, intestines, lungs, liver, and other organs of the human body. This review assesses (1) contamination of heavy metals in soils through different sources, like anthropogenic and natural; (2) the effect on microorganisms and the chemical and physical properties of soil; (3) the effect on plants as well as crop production; and (4) entering the food chain and associated hazards to human health. Lastly, we identified certain research gaps and suggested further study. If people want to feel safe in their surroundings, there needs to be stringent regulation of the release of heavy metals into the environment.
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