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Slicing and dicing Gallatin Valley soils: Pitfalls of litho-, pyro-, and climo-sequences
(Montana State University, 2013-04) Sugden, John
Outlined approach to defining elevational limits of aeolian inputs to soils across the Bridger Range (climosequence), effects of varying lithologies on soil properties (lithosequence), and effects of fire on soil properties associated with the August 2012 Millie Fire (pyrosequence).
Radiometry and the Friis transmission equation
(American Association of Physics Teachers, 2013) Shaw, Joseph
To more effectively tailor courses involving antennas, wireless communications, optics, and applied electromagnetics to a mixed audience of engineering and physics students, the Friis transmission equation—which quantifies the power received in a free-space communication link—is developed from principles of optical radiometry and scalar diffraction. This approach places more emphasis on the physics and conceptual understanding of the Friis equation than is provided by the traditional derivation based on antenna impedance. Specifically, it shows that the wavelength-squared dependence can be attributed to diffraction at the antenna aperture and illustrates the important difference between the throughput (product of area and solid angle) of a single antenna or telescope and the throughput of a transmitter-receiver pair.
Comparing citizen science and professional data to evaluate extrapolated mountain goat distribution models
(ESA, 2017-02) Flesch, Elizabeth; Belt, Jami
Citizen science provides a prime opportunity for wildlife managers to obtain low-cost data recorded by volunteers to evaluate species distribution models and address research objectives. Using mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) location data collected through aerial surveys by professionals, ground surveys by professionals, and ground surveys by volunteers, we evaluated two mountain goat distribution models extrapolated across Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park. In addition, we compared mountain goat location data by observer and survey type to determine whether there were differences that affected extrapolated model evaluation. We found that all dataset types compared similarly to both mountain goat models. A mountain goat occupancy model developed in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) was the most informative in describing mountain goat locations. We compared Spearman-rank correlations (rs) for occupancy probability bin ranks in the GYA model extrapolation and area-adjusted frequencies of mountain goat locations, and we found that all datasets had a positive correlation, indicating the model had useful predictive ability. Aerial observations had a slightly greater Spearman-rank correlation (rs = 0.964), followed by the professional ground surveys (rs = 0.946), and volunteer ground datasets (rs = 0.898). These results suggest that with effective protocol development and volunteer training, biologists can use mountain goat location data collected by volunteers to evaluate extrapolated models. We recommend that future efforts should apply this approach to other wildlife species and explore development of wildlife distribution models using citizen science.
Food Insecurity Experience: Building Empathy in Future Food and Nutrition Professionals
(Elsevier, 2017-03) Harmon, Alison; Landolfi, Kara; Shanks, Carmen Byker; Hansen, Leanna; Iverson, Laura; Anacker, Melody
OBJECTIVE To assess changes in empathy in students completing a food insecurity experience. DESIGN Mixed methods; quantitative data from survey in years 1 and 2; qualitative data extracted from students\' workbooks in years 2-5. This study was conducted over 10 weeks annually for 5 years. SETTING Northwest US land-grant university. PARTICIPANTS Students enrolled in a community nutrition course who chose to complete the food insecurity exercise. Total included 58 students in quantitative analysis in years 1 and 2 and 119 in qualitative analysis, years 2-5. INTERVENTION(S) The intervention was a food insecurity experience in which participants spent no more than $3/d on food for 5 days ($15 total) while striving for a nutritious diet and reflecting on their experience. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Empathy scores measured by Likert scales; participant responses and reflections recorded in workbook journals. ANALYSIS Comparison of means across time using paired t tests (P < .05); coding and sorting themes from workbook journals. RESULTS Quantitative findings indicated that both classroom content and experiential exercises were important for enhancing empathy about food insecurity. Empathy scores increased from time I to time II and from time I to time III. Qualitative reflections among participants included terms such as guilt, empathy, compassion, and raised consciousness about food insecurity. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Experiential and transformational learning to develop empathy can take place in a 5-day food insecurity experience during a typical university-level community nutrition course. This intervention can be tested for applications in other contexts.
Effectiveness of "Bokashi" compost in breakdown of pre-consumer food waste
(Towne's Harvest Garden, 2013-06) Appling, Talinna; DePartee, Max; Eddy, Zachary; Rychener, Paul
Our student group tested the effectiveness of the Bokashi composting approach, comparing carbon dioxide emissions during a 1 month laboratory incubation and 6-week field incubation of pre-consumer food waste at Montana State University. Preliminary results are presented suggesting there is little difference in decomposition dynamics between pre-consumer food waste alone (control), food waste amended with Bokashi, and food waste amended with soil.
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