Pathways of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene transformation by aerobic yeasts

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The production and use of various highly persistent synthetic compounds lead to environmental pollution. Among such compounds, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is the one which is commonly used as an explosive. Synthesis and wide use of TNT in ammunition have resulted in the contamination of soil, air, surface water, and groundwater. TNT and its nitro group reduction products are highly toxic, potentially mutagenic and persistent contaminants which can persist in the environment for a long time (Spain et al. 2000; Stenuit et al. 2005; Smets et al. 2007; Singh et al. 2012). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has classified TNT as one of the most dangerous pollutants in the biosphere. Hence, remediation of TNT-contaminated sites is urgently warranted at places of its production and use (Keith and Telliard 1979; Fiorella and Spain 1997).Human exposure to TNT or its nitro group reduction metabolites can lead to the development of diseases, such as aplastic anemia, cataracts, impaired liver function and the formation of tumors in the urinary tract (Hathaway 1985; Yinon 1990; Leung et al. 1995). Hence, it is inevitable to work out strategies targeting the degradation of TNT.Decontamination of sites contaminated with explosives, especially with TNT, is possible with application of various physical, chemical, and biological methods. The main advantages of bioremediation are environmental friendliness and involvement of low cost (Rodgers and Bunce 2001).




Ziganshin AM, Gerlach R, "Pathways of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene transformation by aerobic yeasts," In Singh, SN (Ed): Biological Remediation of Explosive Residues, Springer International Publishing Switzerland, 2013 14:301-311
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