Origin of CO2 in Upper Devonian Duperow Formation and the Bakken Petroleum System at Kevin Dome, Northwest Montana

Abstract

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a key mitigation strategy in achieving global net-zero emissions. It is therefore essential to identify and characterize potential subsurface storage repositories. Natural CO2 accumulations provide an opportunity to understand the behavior of CO2 in the subsurface. Here, we investigate the source(s), migration, and storage of CO2 in the Upper Devonian Duperow Formation at Kevin Dome, northwest Montana, USA within the Bakken Petroleum System. We report, major gas, stable and noble gas isotopic compositions in bulk gas samples (n = 19) produced from nearby hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs at Kevin Dome and compare with CO2 bearing fluid inclusions (n = 24) from the Duperow Formation. Using the same methods, bulk gas samples (n = 9) from the adjacent Ferguson Field, (Exshaw/Bakken Petroleum System) in southern Alberta, Canada, and fluid inclusions from the Sweetgrass Hills igneous complex (n = 2) were analyzed to understand CO2 generation and the subsequent processes affecting CO2 regionally. We find that CO2 in the Upper Devonian Duperow Formation is magmatic in origin, likely related to the nearby Sweetgrass Hills igneous complex intrusion (∼52 Ma), whereas CH4 and N2 gases are generated predominantly by thermogenic processes associated with hydrocarbon generation during burial. Since emplacement, most CO2 in the hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs of the Bakken petroleum system at Kevin Dome (∼98%) and the Ferguson Field (∼82%) has subsequently been dissolved into the groundwater. We employ a solubility model to calculate minimum gas/water ratios in Kevin Dome and the Ferguson Field, which are consistent with more groundwater interaction and more dissolution at Kevin Dome. Understanding the subsurface processes affecting CO2 is critical for future CO2 storage site selection.

Description

Keywords

CO2 Origin, CO2 Dissolution, Carbon Sequestration, CCS, Hydrocarbon Gas Sources, Fluid Inclusions

Citation

Adeniyi, E. O., R. L. Tyne, P. H. Barry, T. H. Darrah, M. S. Hubbard, M. L. Myers, C. A. Shaw, D. W. Bowen, and C. W. Calavan. "Origin of CO2 in Upper Devonian Duperow Formation and the Bakken Petroleum System at Kevin Dome, Northwest Montana." Chemical Geology 639 (2023): 121733.
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