Energy Landscapes and the Landscape of Fear

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Animals are not distributed randomly in space and time because their movement ecology is influenced by a variety of factors. Energy landscapes and the landscape of fear have recently emerged as largely independent paradigms, both reshaping our perspectives and thinking relating to the spatial ecology of animals across heterogeneous landscapes. We argue that these paradigms are not distinct but rather complementary, collectively providing a better mechanistic basis for understanding the spatial ecology and decision-making of wild animals. We discuss the theoretical underpinnings of each paradigm and illuminate their complementary nature through case studies, then integrate these concepts quantitatively by constructing quantitative pathways of movement modulated by energy and fear to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the spatial ecology of wild animals.




Gallagher, Austin J, Scott Creel, Rory P Wilson, and Steven J Cooke. "Energy Landscapes and the Landscape of Fear." Trends in Ecology and Evolution (November 2016). DOI:
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