Sampling and quantification of biofilms in food processing and other environments


In the food industry, assessment of food contact surfaces is necessary to determine whether equipment is properly cleaned and/or sanitized and whether living problematic microorganisms are present. Existing quantitative detection technologies are limited by the inability to directly detect living cells in sporadically dispersed biofilms on large surface areas. Thus, precise and accurate sampling strategies must be coupled with detection technology. This chapter discusses sampling methods and standard (e.g., plating and ATP-bioluminescence) and emerging (e.g., spectrometry, immunosensor, and nucleic acid-based) quantitative techniques to detect biofilms on food contact surfaces with a survey of function, analytical performance, and limitations.




Nivens DE, Co B, Franklin MJ, "Sampling and quantification of biofilms in food processing and other environments," In: Biofilms in the Food and Beverage Industries. (Fratamico, Annous, and Gunther eds.) Woodland Publishing Ltd. 2009 pp. 539-568.
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