Temporal Scales of the Nocturnal Flow Within and Above a Forest Canopy in Amazonia


Multiresolution decomposition is applied to 10 months of nocturnal turbulence observations taken at eight levels within and above a forest canopy in Central Amazonia. The aim is to identify the contributions of different temporal scales of the flow above and within the canopy. Results show that turbulence intensity in the lower canopy is mostly affected by the static stability in the upper canopy. Horizontal velocity fluctuations peak at time scales longer than 100 s within the canopy, which correspond to the scale of non-turbulent submeso motions above the canopy. In the vertical velocity spectrum near the surface, the peak occurs at time scales around 100 s, which are larger than the time scales of the turbulent flow above the canopy. Heat-flux cospectra within the canopy peak at the same temporal scales as the vertical velocity fluctuations at that level, suggesting the existence of buoyancy driven turbulence. Case studies are presented as evidence that low-frequency fluctuations propagate towards the canopy interior more easily than does turbulence.




Santos, Daniel M, Otavio C Acevedo, Marcelo Chamecki, Jose D Fuentes, Tobias Gerken, and Paul C Stoy. "Temporal Scales of the Nocturnal Flow Within and Above a Forest Canopy in Amazonia." Boundary-Layer Meteorology 161, no. 1 (October 2016): 73-98. DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10546-016-0158-5.
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