Low temperature sintering of Ba(Zr0.8‑xCexY0.2)O3-δ using lithium fluoride additive


Lithium fluoride (LiF) was selected as a liquid phase sintering additive to lower the sintering temperature. The effects of LiF on the sinterability, microstructure, and electrochemical properties of Ba(Zr0.8 − xCexY0.2)O3 − δ (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.4) (BZCYs) ceramics were investigated. Using LiF as an additive, high density BZCYs ceramics can be obtained at sintering temperatures 200–300 °C lower than the usual 1700 °C with much shorter soaking time. Nuclear reaction investigations showed no lithium and a small amount of fluorine reside in the sample which indicates the non-concomitant evaporation of lithium and fluorine during the sintering process. Scanning electron microscopic investigations showed the bimodal structure of BZCYs ceramics and grain growth as Ce content increases. In a water saturated hydrogen containing atmosphere, BZCYs ceramics have higher conductivity when LiF is used in the sintering process. LiF-added BZCYs electrolyte-supported fuel cells with platinum electrodes were tested at temperatures from 500 to 850 °C. Results show that LiF is an excellent sintering additive for lowering the sintering temperature of BZCYs.




C.-L. Tsai, M. Kopczyk, R.J. Smith, and V.H. Schmidt, “Low temperature sintering of Ba(Zr0.8‑xCexY0.2)O3 - δ using lithium fluoride additive,” Solid State Ionics 181, 1083-1090 (2010). doi: 10.1016/j.ssi.2010.06.028.
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