Effects of emotional intelligence on principals' leadership performance
A study of school principals in Montana was conducted to determine the effects of emotional intelligence on elementary principals' leadership performance. The problem addressed in this study was that the effect of emotional intelligence on leadership performance is not known. This study measured the emotional intelligence of elementary principals in Montana using the Emotional Intelligence Appraisal: There Is More Than IQ (Bradberry, & Greaves, 2003), which measures the following five categories of emotional intelligence: (1) self-awareness, (2) self-management, (3) social awareness, (4) relationship management, and (5) overall emotional intelligence. The principals' leadership performance was measured using the Educational Leadership Improvement Tool (DeFranco & Golden, 2003), which assesses a principal's leadership performance in the following 9 areas: (1) leadership attributes, (2) visionary leadership, (3) community leadership, (4) instructional leadership, (5) data-driven improvement, (6) organization to improve student learning, (7) organization to improve staff efficacy, (8) cultural competence, and (9) educational management. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to determine the relationship between emotional intelligence and elementary principals' leadership performance. A factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the influence of gender, age, and years of experience on emotional intelligence. Analysis of the data indicated that emotional intelligence, as defined by Goleman (1998), had a strong effect on the nine standards of leadership as defined by DeFranco & Golden (2003). Gender, age, and years of experience had no significant effects on emotional intelligence. The results of this research indicated that emotional intelligence has a positive effect on principals' leadership performance. This supports the body of research that emotional intelligence has a positive effect on leadership performance. Effective leadership requires a wide range of skills. Emotional intelligence is one skill that may assist principals as they strive to more effectively meet the needs of students.