Immunomodulatory Activity of Polysaccharides Isolated from Saussurea salicifolia L. and Saussurea frolovii Ledeb

Abstract

The genus Saussurea has been used in the preparation of therapies for a number of medical problems, yet not much is known about the therapeutic high-molecular-weight compounds present in extracts from these plants. Since polysaccharides are important in immune modulation, we investigated the chemical composition and immunomodulatory activity of Saussurea salicifolia L. and Saussurea frolovii Ledeb polysaccharides. Water-soluble polysaccharides from the aerial parts of these plants were extracted using water at pHs of 2 and 6 and subsequently precipitated in ethanol to obtain fractions SSP2 and SSP6 from S. salicifolia and fractions SSF2 and SSF6 from S. frolovii. The molecular weights of fractions SSP2, SSP6, SFP2, and SFP6 were estimated to be 143.7, 113.2, 75.3, and 64.3 kDa, respectively. The polysaccharides from S. frolovii contained xylose (67.1–71.7%) and glucose (28.3–32.9%), whereas the polysaccharides from S. frolovii contained xylose (63.1–76.7%), glucose (11.8–19.2%), galactose (4.7–8.3%), and rhamnose (6.8–9.4%). Fractions SSP2, SSP6, and SFP2 stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production by murine macrophages, and NO production induced by SSP2, SSP6, and SFP2 was not inhibited by polymyxin B treatment of the fractions, whereaspolymyxin B treatment diminished the effects of SFP6, suggesting that SFP6 could contain lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The LPS-free fractions SSP2, SSP6, and SFP2 had potent immunomodulatory activity, induced NO production, and activated transcription factors NF-κB/AP-1 in human monocytic THP-1 cells and cytokine production by human MonoMac-6 monocytic cells, including interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon-γ, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). These data suggest that at least part of the beneficial therapeutic effects reported for water extracts of the Saussurea species are due to the modulation of leukocyte functions by polysaccharides.

Description

Keywords

plant polysaccharide, saussurea, macrophage, nitric oxide, cytokine, polymyxin B, xyloglucan

Citation

Schepetkin IA, Danilets MG, Ligacheva AA, Trofimova ES, Selivanova NS, Sherstoboev EY, Krivoshchekov SV, Gulina EI, Brazovskii KS, Kirpotina LN, et al. Immunomodulatory Activity of Polysaccharides Isolated from Saussurea salicifolia L. and Saussurea frolovii Ledeb. Molecules. 2023; 28(18):6655. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28186655
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