The elasticity of force : determinants of terms of trade in American Indian treaties
In the nineteenth century the United States Government acquired millions of acres of land from Indian tribes. In the early part of the century the government obtained land primarily through purchase. Later, however, land was taken by force. This paper is a theoretical and empirical investigation into the role of force in causing the change in government Indian policy and the effect of force on the outcomes of negotiated treaties. A theory of force in negotiated settlements is developed and tested in the context of American Indian treaties with the U.S. government. The conclusion is that the government used its superior military strength to reduce the prices paid for Indian land.