Scholarly Work - Indigenous Research Initiative

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    Diversity and use of medicinal plants for soup making in traditional diets of the Hakka in West Fujian, China
    (2019-11) Luo, Binsheng; Li, Feifei; Ahmed, Selena; Long, Chunlin
    Background Wild edible and medicinal plants were an important component of traditional diets and continue to contribute to food security, nutrition, and health in many communities globally. For example, the preparation and consumption of soup made of medicinal plants for promoting health and preventing disease are a key component of the traditional diets of the Hakka socio-linguistic group of China’s West Fujian Province. As environmental and socio-economic factors drive the shift away from traditional diets, there is a need for ethnobotanical documentation of the diversity of wild edible and medicinal plants as well as associated knowledge and practices. Method Ethnobotanical surveys were conducted in Hakka communities in West Fujian Province between 2017 and 2018 to document plants used in medicinal soups as well as associated traditional ecological knowledge, practices, and conservation status. Surveys included semi-structural interviews, key informant interviews, participatory rural appraisal, and focus group discussions. Quantitative indices, including cultural food significance index (CFSI) and relative frequency of citation (RFC), were calculated to evaluate the importance of documented plants to Hakka communities. The species with the highest CFSI and RFC values were ranked by informants and further evaluated according to their individual properties and growth environment. Results A total of 42 medicinal plant species, belonging to 25 families and 41 genera, were documented for making soup by the Hakka. The Asteraceae botanical family was the most prevalent, and their root or the entire plant is used for soup making. Informants incorporate different ingredients in soups for their flavors as well as medicinal properties on the basis of the local ethnonutrition system. The most prevalent medicinal uses of the documented plants for making soups were used for clearing inner heat (58.1% of the species), treating inflammation (37.2%), and counteracting cold in the body (20.9%). Informants perceived that the medicinal properties of soup-making plants are influenced by the time of harvest, the local environment, and the climate. Conclusion Efforts are needed to preserve the ecological knowledge associated with traditional diets towards supporting both environmental and human well-being in rapidly developing communities experiencing the nutrition transition and biodiversity loss.
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    Intended and Unintended Consequences of a Community-Based Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Dietary Intervention on the Flathead Reservation of the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes
    (2020-08) Ahmed, Selena; Dupuis, Virgil; Tyron, Michael; Running Crane, MaryAnn; Gavin, Teresa; Pierre, Micheal; Byker Shanks, Carmen
    Tribal communities in the United States face disparities to accessing healthy foods including high-quality produce. A six-week fresh fruit and vegetable (FV) dietary intervention, Eat Fresh, was co-designed with a Community Advisory Board of local food and nutrition stakeholders on the Flathead Reservation of the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes in Montana. Eat Fresh was implemented as a pilot study with low-income participants (n = 19) enrolled in the Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations toward improving dietary quality and perceptions of well-being. We evaluated Eat Fresh at pre- and post-intervention on the basis on food procurement practices, dietary quality using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), Body Mass Index (BMI), blood pressure, and participant perceptions of health. Participants reported consuming a greater number of types of FVs daily during the intervention (p < 0.005 for fruits and p > 0.19 for vegetables). Overall, participants found Eat Fresh moderately challenging to adhere to with the main barriers being access to ingredients in recipes (39.51% of responses), time constraints to cook (35.80%), and lack of financial resources (33.33%). Dietary quality improved during the intervention from a mean HEI score of 48.82 (± 11.88) out of 100–56.92 (± 11.88; (p > 0.12). HEI scores for fruit consumption significantly increased (p < 0.05) from 1.69 (out of 5 points) during the pre-intervention to 2.96 during the post-intervention. BMI and blood pressure increased for several participants, highlighting an unintended consequence. Most participants responded that FV consumption made them feel either very good (51.16%) or good about their health (43.02%) with the majority (83%) perceiving an improvement in energy. Findings of this pilot study highlight both intended and unintended consequences of a dietary intervention that provide lessons in co-designing community-based programs.
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    Perceptions of food environments and nutrition among residents of the Flathead Indian Reservation
    (2020-10) Byker Shanks, Carmen; Ahmed, Selena; Dupuis, Virgil; Houghtaling, Bailey; Running Crane, MaryAnn; Tryon, Mike; Pierre, Mike
    Background Indigenous food systems have been displaced with the emergence of colonization, industrialization, and cultural, economic, political, and environmental changes. This disruption can be seen in marked health and food environment disparities that contribute to high obesity and diabetes mellitus prevalence among Native American peoples. Methods A Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) approach was used to document food environment experiences among residents of the Flathead Reservation in rural Montana. Participants were identified using purposive sampling techniques to participate in a survey and a semi-structured interview. Descriptive statistics helped to describe participant demographics, food access variables, and household food security status. Food environment perceptions were analyzed using the constant comparison method among trained researchers. Results Participants completed surveys (n = 79) and interviews (n = 76). A large number participated in federal nutrition assistance programs. Many self-reported experiencing diet-related chronic diseases. Major themes included the community food environment, dietary norms, and food-health connections. Subthemes were represented by perceptions of food environment transitions and the important role of food in familial life. Further, opportunities and challenges were identified for improving community food environments. Conclusions Perceptions of the food environment were linked to strategies that could be targeted to improve dietary quality along a social-ecological model continuum. There is need for skill-based education that directly addresses the time and monetary constraints that were commonly experienced by residents. Coinciding food environment interventions to promote dietary quality that engage community members, store management, and government policy stakeholders are also needed to reestablish healthy Native American food systems and environments within this community.
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    Bamboos for weaving and relevant traditional knowledge in Sansui, Southwest China
    (2020-10) Luo, Binsheng; Ahmed, Selena; Long, Chunlin
    Background Traditional bamboo weaving has been practiced for centuries in Sansui, a county dominated by the Miao people, in Guizhou province of Southwest China. Sansui bamboo weaving represents an intangible cultural heritage as defined by UNESCO, but, like many other traditional handicrafts in China, it has suffered a downfall in this period of rapid development. Sansui bamboo weaving is now experiencing a renaissance due to the joint efforts of the local government, bamboo weaving companies, and individual bamboo weavers. However, what bamboo species have supported the traditional bamboo weaving in Sansui keeps unknown up to now. The traditional knowledge and technology associated with bamboo weaving have not been reported. In addition, the resumption of the local bamboo industry may provide some valuable experiences for other downfallen traditional handicrafts or local communities. Thus, an ethnobotanical study on Sansui bamboo weaving has been carried out. Methods This study mainly used ethnobotanical methods, including key informant interviews and participatory observations. Different stakeholders were selected by applying the snowball method as our key informants including 6 officials, 37 bamboo weavers, and 17 bamboo and bamboo weaving product merchants. We also went into the local weavers’ houses to visit the whole weaving process. The bamboo and dye plant species for bamboo weaving were identified by taxonomists and referring to online databases available. Results Based on field investigations, 17 bamboo species used for weaving were recorded. Different bamboo species were woven for different purposes based on their own characters. Phyllostachys heteroclada is the most popular species locally. Bamboo strips are usually dyed by using Platycarya strobilacea and Rubia cordifolia to be made for different images. In recent years, the size, functions, and materials of local bamboo weaving crafts as well as their market mode have been changed to adapt to new development trends and to cater to the market. In addition, the cooperation among bamboo weavers, bamboo companies, and household workshops has provided great support to the local bamboo industry and to reboot the economy of the local community. Some suggestions for the sustainable economic development of Sansui bamboo weaving and other Chinese traditional handicrafts are proposed. Conclusion In the present study, the bamboo weaving-associated traditional knowledge was collected by means of ethnobotanical methods. The recent renaissance of the bamboo weaving business in Sansui can be attributed both to government support and the innovations of the bamboo weaving industry itself. The developing mode (“Internet + intangible cultural heritage + poverty alleviation”), which combined the internet, poverty alleviation, and intangible cultural heritage, is valid and worth being promoted.
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    Food Environment Typology: Advancing an Expanded Definition, Framework, and Methodological Approach for Improved Characterization of Wild, Cultivated, and Built Food Environments toward Sustainable Diets
    (2020-04) Downs, Shauna M.; Ahmed, Selena; Fanzo, Jessica; Herforth, Anna
    The food environment is a critical place in the food system to implement interventions to support sustainable diets and address the global syndemic of obesity, undernutrition, and climate change, because it contains the total scope of options within which consumers make decisions about which foods to acquire and consume. In this paper, we build on existing definitions of the food environment, and provide an expanded definition that includes the parameter of sustainability properties of foods and beverages, in order to integrate linkages between food environments and sustainable diets. We further provide a graphical representation of the food environment using a socio-ecological framework. Next, we provide a typology with descriptions of the different types of food environments that consumers have access to in low-, middle-, and high-income countries including wild, cultivated, and built food environments. We characterize the availability, affordability, convenience, promotion and quality (previously termed desirability), and sustainability properties of food and beverages for each food environment type. Lastly, we identify a methodological approach with potential objective and subjective tools and metrics for measuring the different properties of various types of food environments. The definition, framework, typology, and methodological toolbox presented here are intended to facilitate scholars and practitioners to identify entry points in the food environment for implementing and evaluating interventions that support sustainable diets for enhancing human and planetary health.
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    Ethnobotany and diversity of medicinal plants used by the Buyi in eastern Yunnan, China
    (2020-10) Xiong, Yong; Sui, Xueyi; Ahmed, Selena; Wang, Zhi; Long, Chunlin
    The Buyi are a socio-linguistic group in Yunnan Province of southwest China that have a long history of using medicinal plants as part of their indigenous medical system. Given the limited written documentation of the Buyi indigenous medical system, the objective of this paper is to document the medicinal plants of the Buyi and associated traditional knowledge and transmission. Field research was conducted in four villages in Lubuge Township of Luoping County in Yunnan Province using ethnobotanical methodologies including participatory observation, semi-structured interviews, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions to elicit information on medicinal plants. In total, 120 informants (including 15 key informants who are healers) were interviewed. This study found that a total of 121 medicinal plant species belonging to 64 families are used by the Buyi including by local healers to treat different diseases. Among the medicinal plants recorded in this study, 56 species (46%) have not previously been documented in the scientific literature as having medicinal value, highlighting the pressing need for ethnobotanical documentation in indigenous communities. The most frequently used medicinal part was the leaf (24.9% of documented plants), and the most common preparation method was decoction (62.8% of medicinal). Medicinal plants were mainly used to treat rheumatism (12.4% of plants), trauma and injuries (9.6%). The documented plants are also used for other non-medicinal purposes including food, fodder, fencing, and ornamental. In addition, 35 of the medicinal plants are considered poisonous and are used by local Buyi healers for medicine. The traditional Buyi beliefs and practices associated with the documented medicinal plants likely contributes to their conservation in the environments and around Buyi communities. This study further highlights that ethnomedicinal knowledge of the Buyi is at risk of disappearing due to increased introduction and use of modern medicine in Buyi communities, livelihood changes, rapid modernization, and urbanization. Research, policy, and community programs are urgently needed to conserve the biocultural diversity associated with the Buyi medical system including ethnobotanical knowledge towards supporting both environmental and human wellbeing.
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    American Indian young adults display diminished cardiovascular and cortisol responses to acute psychological stress
    (2020-04) John-Henderson, Neha A.; Gruman, Hannah E.; Counts, Cory J.; Ginty, Annie T.
    American Indian adults are at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease compared with non-Hispanic white adults. Scant research exists examining the underlying physiological and psychological mechanisms associated with these risks. This study aimed to examine possible psychological and physiological stress-related mechanisms related to cardiovascular disease risk in healthy American Indian and non-Hispanic white adults. Forty American Indian (60% female, Mean age = 19.93, SD = 2.08 years) and 45 non-Hispanic white (70% female, Mean age = 20.18, SD = 2.22 years) participants attended an in-person laboratory session. Salivary cortisol and cardiovascular activity were measured before (baseline), during, and after exposure to a 10-minute mental arithmetic task. Compared to non-Hispanic white participants, American Indian had diminished salivary cortisol (p < .001), blood pressure (p’s < .001), and heart rate (p = .041) responses to acute psychological stress. These effects could not be accounted for by differences in task performance or self-reported engagement. Previous research has shown that exaggerated responses to stress are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, diminished responses to stress are associated with early childhood stress and future adverse behaviors (e.g., addiction, obesity). Diminished reactivity may influence behaviors that can impact future development of cardiovascular disease in American Indian populations.
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    Variation of Microbiological and Biochemical Profiles of Laowo Dry-Cured Ham, an Indigenous Fermented Food, during Ripening by GC-TOF-MS and UPLC-QTOF-MS
    (2020-07) Lin, Fengke; Cai, Fei; Luo, Binsheng; Gu, Ronghui; Ahmed, Selena; Long, Chunlin
    Fermented foods have unique microbiota and metabolomic profiles that can support dietary diversity, digestion, and gut health of consumers. Laowo ham (LWH) is an example of an indigenous fermented food from Southwestern China that has cultural, ecological, economic, and health significance to local communities. We carried out ethnobiological surveys coupled with metagenomic and metabolomic analyses using GC-TOF-MS and UPLC-QTOF-MS to elucidate the microbiota and metabolic profiles of LWH samples at different ripening stages. The results from high-throughput sequencing showed a total of 502 bacterial genera in LWH samples with 12 genera of bacteria and 6 genera of fungi identified as dominant groups. This is the first study to our knowledge to report the bacteria of Lentibacillus and Mesorhizobium along with fungi Eremascus and Xerochrysium on a fermented meat product. Findings further revealed that the metabolite profiles among LWH samples were significantly different. In total, 27 and 30 metabolites from GC-TOF-MS and UPLC-QTOF-MS analysis, respectively, were annotated as highly discriminative metabolites. Among the differential compounds, the relative contents of most amino acids showed the highest in the LWH sample ripened for two years, while some metabolites with potential therapeutic effects such as levetiracetam were the most abundant in the LWH sample ripened for three years. The correlation analysis indicated that the dominant microbes were closely related to differential metabolites, highlighting the importance of their functional characterization. Findings indicate that the consumption of LWH contributes to microbiological and chemical diversity of human diets as well as suggests efficacy of combining GC-MS and LC-MS to study the metabolites in dry-cured meat products.
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    Contribution of wild foods to diet, food security, and cultural values amidst climate change
    (2019-11) Smith, Erin; Ahmed, Selena; Running Crane, MaryAnn; Eggers, Margaret J.; Pierre, Mike; Flagg, Kenneth A.; Byker Shanks, Carmen
    Wild foods are recognized to contribute to diet and food security through enhancing the availability of local, diverse, and nonmarket food sources. We investigated the contribution of wild foods to diet, food security, and cultural identity in a Native American[1] community in the context of climate change. Structured interviews were conducted with low-income residents of the Flathead Indian Reser­vation[2] in Northwestern Montana who participate in the federal Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations, also known by participants as ‘Commodities.’ Responses to structured questions were analyzed for frequency, and open-ended responses were coded and analyzed to identify prevalent themes. Our analysis indicated that half of participants were food insecure. Approximately 28% of participants engaged in at least one wild food procurement activity, including hunting, fishing, and harvesting. On average, participants who engaged in one or more wild food procure­ment activities were more food secure than those who did not. Results highlight the multidimen­sional valuation of wild foods by participants including taste, freshness, nutritional quality, being a traditional community practice, and providing a sense of self-sufficiency. Climate change is per­ceived by participants to be adversely impacting wild food systems due to increased variability in seasonality and precipitation and increased inci­dences of wild fire. Findings point to the need for community-based strategies to strengthen wild food knowledge toward enhancing food sover­eignty in Native American communities, in the context of climate change. [1] The term ‘Native American’ was determined to be the preferred term for referencing the Native American community in this study, based on consultation from our community advisory board. [2] The term ‘Flathead Indian Reservation’ was determined to be the preferred term for referencing the location in which this study was held, based on consultation from our community advisory board.
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    A turbulent upriver flow: steamboat narratives of nature, technology, and humans in Montana Territory
    (Montana State University - Bozeman, College of Letters & Science, 2019) Kelly, Evan Graham; Chairperson, Graduate Committee: Mark Fiege
    For a 25 year period in the second half of the 19th century, steamboat travel was a critically important transportation technology which influenced the material, social, and cultural existence of people and landscapes in the Montana region. Building on methodological approaches developed in New Western History and Environmental History, this study argues that steamboats in Montana played a significant role in shaping cultural, demographic, and environmental changes in the area. Steamboats and their crews shaped the dynamic exchange of cultures, materials, and energy between people, landscapes, and technologies. This project stresses that the changes in human-environment relationships in the region influenced people in different ways depending on their race, class, gender, and ethnicity. This thesis argues that steamboats and their crews tapped-into and altered existing systems of material and energy exchange, reshaping energy regimes and augmenting environmental realities in the region. At the same time, steamboats influenced human actions and perceptions of the world around them. The layout of this project begins with an introduction chapter articulating methodological approaches and frameworks used in this analysis. The second chapter provides background on the changing natural and human geographies of the region, while the third chapter provides a history of steamboat technology as well as an overview of the labor, materials, and auxiliary technologies required to operate steamboats. Chapters four through seven present four chronologically organized case-studies and these narratives are used as lenses through which the broader implications of steamboat transportation in the region are examined. The final chapter briefly examines the steamboat Montana and the decline of steamboat travel in the early 1880s before offering a summary and conclusion of findings.
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    Dietary Beliefs and Management of Older American Indians With Type 2 Diabetes
    (2019-07) Shure, Mark B.; Turner Goins, Ruth; Jones, Jacqueline; Winchester, Blythe; Bradley, Vickie
    Objectives This qualitative study examined dietary-related beliefs and self-management among older American Indians with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Design Semistructured in-person interviews were conducted and digitally recorded. Setting Southeastern American Indian tribal community. Participants A total of 28 noninstitutionalized older tribal members aged >60 years. Phenomenon of Interest Study participants’ beliefs and experiences with dietary practices and management related to T2DM. Analysis Transcribed qualitative interviews were coded using an inductive content analysis approach. Results Four themes regarding T2DM dietary beliefs and T2DM dietary management emerged from the analyses: diet changes, portion control, health care professional and family influence, and barriers to healthy eating. Study participants described how their beliefs, practices, and experiences in these 4 areas related to T2DM. Conclusions and Implications American Indian older adults face a variety of challenges to dietary management of T2DM. Future research efforts can focus on assessing how social support can be leveraged to facilitate healthy diets for American Indians with T2DM. Clinicians and diabetes educators and Native communities have an instrumental role in identifying culturally appropriate messages and programs to help persons effectively manage T2DM.
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    Educating for Sustainability in Remote Locations
    (National Rural Education Association, 2019-07) Reading, Chris; Khupe, Constance; Redford, Morag; Wallin, Dawn; Versland, Tena; Taylor, Neil; Hampton, Patrick
    At a time when social, economic and political decisions, along with environmental events, challenge the viability of remote communities, educators need to better prepare young people in these communities to work towards sustainability. Remote locations can be defined by their inaccessibility rather than just distance from the nearest services, while the sustainability construct encapsulates a range of community needs: environmental, social, cultural and economic. This paper describes experiences that involve innovative approaches towards educating for sustainability in remote locations in six diverse countries: South Africa, Scotland, Canada, United States of America, Pacific Island Nations, and Australia. For each, the nature of what constitutes a “remote” location, as well as the detail and challenges of the innovation are presented. Readers should consider how they might more suitably educate the next generation to protect, showcase and learn from/with the local knowledges and capacities of the people and environments in remote locations.
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    Green museums waking up the world: indigenous and mainstream approaches to exploring sustainability
    (Montana State University - Bozeman, College of Letters & Science, 2018) Medicine Horse, Jennifer Neso'eoo'e; Chairperson, Graduate Committee: Robert Rydell
    Mainstream and Indigenous Museums are ideally situated, both geographically and culturally, to educate the public about complex twenty-first century environmental issues. The most effective approaches to understanding, addressing, and adapting to these climate changes can be conveyed by museums, incorporating a holistic methodology utilizing the knowledge, observations and ideas of both Western and Indigenous peoples, and directed toward the young people of the world most impacted by climate disruption. This qualitative research was conceptualized iteratively within an Indigenous research methodology, using a combination of Western and Indigenous research approaches to create a hybrid methodology that would satisfy academic requirements, yet foster the community required to successfully answer the research question. Although a formal list of interview questions was developed, the qualitative interviews were primarily conducted in an informal conversational manner, allowing the respondents to tell their stories and include what they felt was relevant. A snowball strategy was employed to generate the potential interviews, as well as scouting potential interviews at the American Alliance of Museums (AAM) and Association of Tribal Archives Libraries and Museums (ATALM) annual conferences during the years 2011-2015. One hundred and three interviews were conducted at ten institutions; all interviews were conducted in-person on-site at the home institutions. Approximately half of the interviews were conducted at the Smithsonian Institution as the result of a Smithsonian Research Fellowship. The interview respondents were forthcoming about their experiences and observations regarding sustainability initiatives at their institutions. The interviews suggest that it is indeed possible for museums to address issues of climate disruption and sustainability efficaciously, utilizing both Western and Indigenous scientific knowledges to educate and engage the public. However, few American museums are currently attempting this task fraught with challenges, although museums are uniquely able to undertake this crucial work. The collaborative work catalyzed by the Cosmic Serpent and Native Universe NSF-funded research projects serves as a tested model to inspire museums to design their own initiatives. Citizen Science initiatives, engaging museums with their constituent youth, provide a promising way of conveying complex environmental information in a palatable manner to youth of various ages and cultural backgrounds.
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    An investigation of coliform contamination in private well water on the Crow Reservation
    (Montana State University - Bozeman, College of Agriculture, 2019) Three Irons, Emery UP; Chairperson, Graduate Committee: Scott Powell; Margaret Eggers (co-chair)
    The Crow reservation has a rural population that depends on home well water for domestic use. Many of the home wells do not have a suitable well cap, allowing a potential pathway of bacterial contamination of groundwater. Fecal coliform is associated with acute health problems, such as gastrointestinal illness, diarrhea, and cramps. Therefore, total coliform contamination of well water is an important health concern among Crow home well users. This research examines patterns in total coliform contamination among home well samples with respect to a suite of well and local aquifer characteristics thought to influence vulnerability to contamination, including well protection factors. Well and aquifer characteristics considered in this research include: the geologic production formation, local land cover, and distance to the nearest river. Well protection factors include: cap type, cap condition, depth of completion and time since completion (or age). One hundred water quality samples were collected from home wells along the Little Big Horn River in 2017, and available data on the character of those wells and aquifers were collected for comparison with the patterns in fecal coliform contamination among the samples. Presence/absence of coliform contamination was assessed using the Colilert IDEXX Quanti-Tray 2000 method. Spatial variations in the characteristics of wells and aquifers were characterized through a combination of well logs, the National Land Cover Dataset, and the National Hydrography Dataset. Logistic regression was used to identify potential relationships between probability of coliform contamination and characteristics of associated wells and aquifers. Logistic regression models suggested two notable and statistically significant (? = 0.05 level) relationships: (1) wells completed in alluvium and farther from the river had a higher probability of total coliform contamination, and (2) wells with old style caps had a higher probability of total coliform contamination. The government of the Crow tribe can decide how to use the results for mitigation efforts and awareness for homeowners with contaminated wells. Also, the Crow Water Quality Project should archive and consider these results for future research, planning, development, and management.
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    The Whole in Small Compass: D'Arcy McNickle's Social Vision in The Surrounded
    (2019-06-01) Herman, Matthew
    This essay aims to renew interest in D'Arcy McNickle's allotment-era novel set on the Flathead Indian Reservation, The Surrounded (1936), by drawing attention to how McNickle's social vision theorizes culture, history, and race in ways that align with recent critical calls in the Native American humanities and the new indigenous transnationalisms for more socially inflected approaches to theory and method. This essay draws on tribal history sources to illustrate McNickle's contributions to the development of a contemporary Native American social theory.
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    Performance of Arch-Style Road Crossing Structures from Relative Movement Rates of Large Mammals
    (2017-10) Andis, A. Z.; Huijser, Marcel P.; Broberg, Len
    In recent decades, an increasing number of highway construction and reconstruction projects have included mitigation measures aimed at reducing wildlife-vehicle collisions and maintaining habitat connectivity for wildlife. The most effective and robust measures include wildlife fences combined with wildlife underpasses and overpasses. The 39 wildlife crossing structures included along a 90 km stretch of US Highway 93 on the Flathead Indian Reservation in western Montana represent one of the most extensive of such projects. We measured movements of large mammal species at 15 elliptical arch-style wildlife underpasses and adjacent habitat between April and November 2015. We investigated if the movements of large mammals through the underpasses were similar to large mammal movements in the adjacent habitat. Across all structures, large mammals (all species combined) were more likely to move through the structures than pass at a random location in the surrounding habitat. At the species level, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (O. hemionus) used the underpasses significantly more than could be expected based on their movement through the surrounding habitat. However, carnivorous species such as, black bear (Ursus americanus) and coyote (Canis latrans) moved through the underpasses in similar numbers compared to the surrounding habitat.
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    The motif of meeting: a content analysis of multi-voiced young adult novels
    (Montana State University - Bozeman, College of Education, Health & Human Development, 2019) Stolp, Susan Hardy; Chairperson, Graduate Committee: Joyce Herbeck; Ann Ewbank (co-chair)
    The purpose of this study was to discover, through content analysis, polyphonic narrative strategies used in a small sample of multi-voiced young adult novels. The objective was to trace the paths of the individual narrators toward eventual meeting with or understanding of each other, looking for trends, commonalities, and unique qualities that characterize the polyphonic fugue described by McCallum (1999) and Bakhtin (1981). I envisioned these points of meeting as Bahktin's (1981) units of narrative analysis known as the chronotope, perfect alignments in time and space, functioning as connectors among strands within multi-voiced narratives. In Vivo Coding, springing from the actual language of participants, and Emotion Coding, making inferences about narrators' subjective experiences, were the guiding qualitative methodologies used in this content analysis. The combination of In Vivo and Emotion Codes provided the data that was used to analyze and interpret narrators' emotional journeys as well as their interactions with one another. The content analysis revealed a complexity of emotions among the ten individual narrators from the three novels studied. Patterns in their emotional journeys were determined and displayed using artistic representation. Points of meeting between and among narrators proved to be the impetus for individual change and growth. In terms of the fugue, the voices are independent of one another but also have shape and meaning in conjunction with one another (McCallum, 1999), and through analysis and interpretation of narrators' emotional arcs, these shapes and meanings emerged. In terms of significance, this content analysis provided evidence for the use of multi-voiced young adult literature to be a means by which to read with a critical literacy lens, for adolescents to realize their existence as part of a greater whole, and to imagine literature as a catalyst toward personal growth.
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    Community-based prevention education on abusive head trauma in a Montana Native American community
    (Montana State University - Bozeman, College of Nursing, 2019) Schmitt, Emily Marie; Chairperson, Graduate Committee: Sandra Kuntz
    This scholarly project cultivated a partnership with a Montana Native American community to develop an implementation method of an evidence-based, abusive-head-trauma-prevention education program. The partnering community felt that more could be done to prevent abusive head trauma. Utilizing the framework of Community-Based Participatory Research and the Rural Nursing Theory, this project identified the best available evidence and then developed multiple methods to implement this prevention material. Multiple lessons were learned and important reflections developed from the project process. These lessons can be utilized to guide future projects. A model for program implementation was developed for future use and implementation of the evidence-based, abusive-head-trauma-prevention program.
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    Frailty in Older American Indians: The Native Elder Care Study
    (2019-06) Turner Goins, Ruth; Schure, Mark B.; Winchester, Blythe
    Introduction Frailty is often described as a reduction in energy reserves, especially with respect to physical ability and endurance, and it has not been examined in American Indians. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence of frailty and identify its correlates in a sample of American Indians. Methods We examined data from 411 community-dwelling American Indians aged ≥55 years. Frailty was measured with weight loss, exhaustion, low energy expenditure, slowness, and weakness characteristics. Results Slightly over 44% of participants were classified as pre-frail and 2.9% as frail. Significant correlates of a combined pre-frail and frail status identified in the fully adjusted analyses were younger age, female gender, lower levels of education, increased number of chronic medical conditions, and increased number of activities of daily living limitations. Marital status, chronic pain, and social support were not associated with pre-frail/frail status. Conclusions Our findings point to specific areas in need of further research, including use of frailty measures that also capture psychosocial components and examining constructs of physical resilience. Targeting those with multiple chronic medical conditions may be an important area in which to intervene, with the goal of reducing risk factors and preventing frailty onset.
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    An Apsaalooke view for educational leadership
    (Montana State University - Bozeman, College of Education, Health & Human Development, 2019) Cummins, Jason Dean; Chairperson, Graduate Committee: William Ruff
    There have been many calls for Native American communities to be given more self-determination in the education of their children. Yet despite these calls for allowing Native American parents to be included in the education of their children this is not happening (Bird, Lee and Lopez, 2013). In this study the researcher utilizes an Indigenous research methodology adhering the cultural protocols of the Apsaalooke nation and building upon the 4 R's, which are respect, relevance, reciprocity and responsibility (Kirkness & Barnhardt, 1991). This research allowed Apsaalooke tribal members, identified through the protocols of the Ashammaliaxxiia to voice their perspective and expectations for school leaders who serve students in their communities. There were formal interviews, informal visits and personal communications. The research questions that guided this study are: 1. What kind of behavior and actions do Apsaalooke tribal members expect from school leaders such as principals and superintendents serving their students? 2. How can school leaders work well with parents and leaders in the Apsaalooke community? 3. What do Apsaalooke tribal members want school leaders to know and be aware of in the education of the children of the tribe? From the research four salient themes emerged which are: 1. A leaders first job is to learn; 2. Lead through relationships; 3. Crows take education seriously; 4. The preservation of Apsaalooke identity and culture. Seventeen tribal members participated in the study. From the study the researcher found that leaders need to respect the community and build authentic relationships within it by being present and connected to the community. Lead the school with those relationships within the informal leadership model in the community in a more flattened model based on the respect of and the character possessed by influential leaders, rather than a hierarchical one, as well as defend those relationships. Understand the Apsaalooke want their student to achieve academically and help parents to support their students in this and hire and retain quality teachers. Support the preservation and perpetuation of the Apsaalooke way of life.
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