Temporal Analysis of the Honey Bee Microbiome Reveals Four Novel Viruses and Seasonal Prevalence of Known Viruses, Nosema and Crithidia

dc.contributor.authorRunckel, Charles
dc.contributor.authorFlenniken, Michelle L.
dc.contributor.authorEngel, Juan C.
dc.contributor.authorRuby, J. Graham
dc.contributor.authorGanem, Donald
dc.contributor.authorAndino, Raul
dc.contributor.authorDeRisi, Joseph L.
dc.date.accessioned2019-02-13T19:22:18Z
dc.date.available2019-02-13T19:22:18Z
dc.date.issued2011-06
dc.description.abstractHoney bees (Apis mellifera) play a critical role in global food production as pollinators of numerous crops. Recently, honey bee populations in the United States, Canada, and Europe have suffered an unexplained increase in annual losses due to a phenomenon known as Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). Epidemiological analysis of CCD is confounded by a relative dearth of bee pathogen field studies. To identify what constitutes an abnormal pathophysiological condition in a honey bee colony, it is critical to have characterized the spectrum of exogenous infectious agents in healthy hives over time. We conducted a prospective study of a large scale migratory bee keeping operation using high-frequency sampling paired with comprehensive molecular detection methods, including a custom microarray, qPCR, and ultra deep sequencing. We established seasonal incidence and abundance of known viruses, Nosema sp., Crithidia mellificae, and bacteria. Ultra deep sequence analysis further identified four novel RNA viruses, two of which were the most abundant observed components of the honey bee microbiome (∼1011 viruses per honey bee). Our results demonstrate episodic viral incidence and distinct pathogen patterns between summer and winter time-points. Peak infection of common honey bee viruses and Nosema occurred in the summer, whereas levels of the trypanosomatid Crithidia mellificae and Lake Sinai virus 2, a novel virus, peaked in January.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipProject Apis m.; Howard Hughes Medical Institute; A.P. Giannini Foundation Medical Research Fellowshipen_US
dc.identifier.citationRunckel, Charles, Michelle L. Flenniken, Juan C. Engel, J. Graham Ruby, Donald Ganem, Raul Andino, and Joseph L. DeRisi. “Temporal Analysis of the Honey Bee Microbiome Reveals Four Novel Viruses and Seasonal Prevalence of Known Viruses, Nosema, and Crithidia.” Edited by Robin F. A. Moritz. PLoS ONE 6, no. 6 (June 7, 2011): e20656. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0020656.en_US
dc.identifier.issn1932-6203
dc.identifier.urihttps://scholarworks.montana.edu/handle/1/15261
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.rightsCC BY: This license lets you distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon this work, even commercially, as long as you credit the original creator for this work. This is the most accommodating of licenses offered. Recommended for maximum dissemination and use of licensed materials.en_US
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcodeen_US
dc.titleTemporal Analysis of the Honey Bee Microbiome Reveals Four Novel Viruses and Seasonal Prevalence of Known Viruses, Nosema and Crithidiaen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
mus.citation.extentfirstpagee20656en_US
mus.citation.issue6en_US
mus.citation.journaltitlePLoS ONEen_US
mus.citation.volume6en_US
mus.contributor.orcidFlenniken, Michelle L.|0000-0003-0356-3370en_US
mus.data.thumbpage10en_US
mus.identifier.categoryLife Sciences & Earth Sciencesen_US
mus.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0020656en_US
mus.relation.collegeCollege of Agricultureen_US
mus.relation.departmentPlant Sciences & Plant Pathology.en_US
mus.relation.universityMontana State University - Bozemanen_US

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