Sex Parity in Cognitive Fatigue Model Development for Effective Human-Robot Collaboration


In recent years, robots have become vital to achieving manufacturing competitiveness. Especially in industrial environments, a strong level of interaction is reached when humans and robots form a dynamic system that works together towards achieving a common goal or accomplishing a task. However, the human-robot collaboration can be cognitively demanding, potentially contributing to cognitive fatigue. Therefore, the consideration of cognitive fatigue becomes particularly important to ensure the efficiency and safety in the overall human-robot collaboration. Additionally, sex is an inevitable human factor that needs further investigation for machine learning model development given the perceptual and physiological differences between the sexes in responding to fatigue. As such, this study explored sex differences and labeling strategies in the development of machine learning models for cognitive fatigue detection. Sixteen participants, balanced by sex, recruited to perform a surface finishing task with a UR10 collaborative robot under fatigued and non-fatigued states. Fatigue perception and heart rate activity data collected throughout to create a dataset for cognitive fatigue detection. Equitable machine learning models developed based on perception (survey responses) and condition (fatigue manipulation). The labeling approach had a significant impact on the accuracy and F1-score, where perception-based labels lead to lower accuracy and F1-score for females likely due to sex differences in reporting of fatigue. Additionally, we observed a relationship between heart rate, algorithm type, and labeling approach, where heart rate was the most significant predictor for the two labeling approaches and for all the algorithms utilized. Understanding the implications of label type, algorithm type, and sex on the design of fatigue detection algorithms is essential to designing equitable fatigue-adaptive human-robot collaborations across the sexes.



sex parity, cognitive fatigue, human robot collaboration


A. Kalatzis, S. Hopko, R. K. Mehta, L. Stanley and M. P. Wittie, "Sex Parity in Cognitive Fatigue Model Development for Effective Human-Robot Collaboration," 2022 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Kyoto, Japan, 2022, pp. 10951-10958, doi: 10.1109/IROS47612.2022.9981097.
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