Neuroprotective Effects of Tryptanthrin-6-Oxime in a Rat Model of Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia


The activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) plays an important role in stroke outcomes. Tryptanthrin-6-oxime (TRYP-Ox) is reported to have high affinity for JNK and anti-inflammatory activity and may be of interest as a promising neuroprotective agent. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of TRYP-Ox in a rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia (FCI), which involved intraluminal occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) for 1 h. Animals in the experimental group were administered intraperitoneal injections of TRYP-Ox 30 min before reperfusion and 23 and 47 h after FCI. Neurological status was assessed 4, 24, and 48 h following FCI onset. Treatment with 5 and 10 mg/kg of TRYP-Ox decreased mean scores of neurological deficits by 35–49 and 46–67% at 24 and 48 h, respectively. At these doses, TRYP-Ox decreased the infarction size by 28–31% at 48 h after FCI. TRYP-Ox (10 mg/kg) reduced the content of interleukin (IL) 1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in the ischemic core area of the MCA region by 33% and 38%, respectively, and attenuated cerebral edema by 11% in the left hemisphere, which was affected by infarction, and by 6% in the right, contralateral hemisphere 24 h after FCI. TRYP-Ox reduced c-Jun phosphorylation in the MCA pool at 1 h after reperfusion. TRYP-Ox was predicted to have high blood–brain barrier permeability using various calculated descriptors and binary classification trees. Indeed, reactive oxidant production was significantly lower in the brain homogenates from rats treated with TRYP-Ox versus that in control animals. Our data suggest that the neuroprotective activity of TRYP-Ox may be due to the ability of this compound to inhibit JNK and exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. Thus, TRYP-Ox may be considered a promising neuroprotective agent that potentially could be used for the development of new treatment strategies in cerebral ischemia.



anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidant activity, focal cerebral ischemia, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, ischemic stroke, neuroprotective activity, tryptanthrin-6-oxime


Plotnikov MB, Chernysheva GA, Smol’yakova VI, Aliev OI, Anishchenko AM, Ulyakhina OA, Trofimova ES, Ligacheva AA, Anfinogenova ND, Osipenko AN, et al. Neuroprotective Effects of Tryptanthrin-6-Oxime in a Rat Model of Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia. Pharmaceuticals. 2023; 16(8):1057.
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