Influence of Fouling Biofilms on Heat Transfer
Characklis, William G.
Nimmons, M. J.
Picologlou, B. F.
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In heat exchange equipment, fouling biofilm formation causes a significant energy loss by increasing heat transfer resistance. This paper describes experiments which quantify the influence of fouling biofilms on heat transfer resistance under controlled laboratory conditions. Experimental results compare well with a rather simple mathematical model employing friction factor, biofilm thickness, wall temperature, bulk temperature, and fluid properties as inputs. Limitations of the experimental apparatus and mathematical model are discussed
Characklis, W.G., M.J. Nimmons, and B.F. Picologlou, "Influence of Fouling Biofilms on Heat Transfer," Heat Transfer Engineering, 3(1):23-37 (1981).