Skin factor and potential formation damage from chemical and mechanical processes in a naturally fractured carbonate aquifer with implications to CO2 sequestration
Nguyen, Minh C.
Gay, Garrett W.
Bowen, David W.
Spangler, Lee H.
Stauffer, Philip H.
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In this study, we investigate formation damage due to acidization and water injection tests into the naturally fractured carbonate Middle Duperow Formation at Kevin Dome, Montana, potentially diminishing the chance of a future successful Geological Carbon Sequestration (GCS) project. Multiple well-test analytical models, correlated with core description and lithology data, are used to determine flow behavior and communication between the water injection interval and surrounding formations. An improved three-dimensional (3D) geologic model with dual-continuum matrix and fracture properties is constructed based on most recent seismic, core, and water sample measurements. Brine injection is simulated to verify the interpretation from the analytical models, followed by CO2 injection simulation. Geochemical calculations are performed to understand the in-situ processes that led to formation damage. Our findings suggest: (1) there are two possible scenarios that could lead to a positive total effective skin factor and permeability decline: partial penetration and formation damage; (2) analytical models indicate a positive total skin factor, contradicting results of a previous study suggesting that the well was mildly stimulated; (3) numerical simulation supports the formation damage hypothesis by matching the pressure buildup observed during the latter two brine injection tests; (4) several mechanical and chemical processes may have occurred during injection to clog the matrix/fracture system: anhydrite fines migration and/or calcite precipitation. We then make preventative suggestions for future GCS projects into carbonate reservoirs and remediation recommendations for GCS operation at the Kevin Dome.
Nguyen, M. C., Dejam, M., Fazelalavi, M., Zhang, Y., Gay, G. W., Bowen, D. W., ... & Stauffer, P. H. (2021). Skin factor and potential formation damage from chemical and mechanical processes in a naturally fractured carbonate aquifer with implications to CO2 sequestration. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 108, 103326.