Scholarly Work - Library

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    Scaling up: How data curation can help address key issues in qualitative data reuse and big social research. Introduction (Ch. 1) - Insights from Interviews with Researchers and Curators (Ch. 7).
    (Springer Nature, 2024) Mannheimer, Sara
    This book explores the connections between qualitative data reuse, big social research, and data curation. A review of existing literature identifies the key issues of context, data quality and trustworthiness, data comparability, informed consent, privacy and confidentiality, and intellectual property and data ownership. Through interviews of qualitative researchers, big social researchers, and data curators, the author further examines each key issue and produces new insights about how domain differences affect each community of practice’s viewpoints, different strategies that researchers and curators use to ensure responsible practice, and different perspectives on data curation. The book suggests that encouraging connections between qualitative researchers, big social researchers, and data curators can support responsible scaling up of social research, thus enhancing discoveries in social and behavioral science.
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    Digital Equity & Inclusion Strategies for Libraries: Promoting Student Success for All Learners
    (The International Journal of Information, Diversity, and Inclusion (IJIDI), 2021-07) Frank, Jacqueline; Salsbury, Meghan; McKelvey, Hannah; McLain, Rachelle
    Student success in higher education depends on access to digital resources and services, and today's students rely heavily on the library to facilitate that access. Reliance on digital library resources and services surged in March 2020, when many U.S. higher education institutions moved to remote learning in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. This move exposed a lack of awareness about the ongoing digital divide in higher education in Montana, a rural state with a small population located in the Western U.S., and the underestimation of how student success would be affected in an online learning environment. Many students do not have a computer or device with internet access, or access to reliable, high-speed internet. These barriers inhibit students from experiencing digital equity and inclusion in the realm of remote learning. This article discusses the impact on students, and how librarians working at Montana State University are working to address challenges and advance digital equity and inclusion in their state. It demonstrates how access, or lack of access to resources impacts digital inclusion and digital equity, including personal device ownership, access to the internet or cell service, the ability of libraries to implement remote authentication methods, and digital accessibility. The article shares perspectives and strategies from librarians working in public services and instruction, acquisitions, and electronic resources management, and how they are working together to promote digital equity and inclusion and increase the accessibility of library resources in their community.
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    Improving Library Accessibility Webpages with Secondary Feedback from Users with Disabilities
    (Informa UK Limited, 2023-08) Frank, Jacqueline L.
    Libraries often have a webpage that is dedicated to sharing accessibility information with their users. However, many of these accessibility webpages do not meet the needs of users with disabilities. This article builds on the work of articles by Brunskill (Citation2020) and Brunskill et al. (Citation2021), which shared feedback on a library accessibility webpage gathered from users with disabilities, and created a guide for auditing the information found on library accessibility webpages. This article shares how the Montana State University Library used the feedback they gathered (“secondary feedback”) to improve our accessibility webpage. It is a best practice to get feedback directly from users with disabilities when developing or improving any accessibility resource, and this can take significant time and effort. Therefore, this article shares how libraries can use secondary feedback, such as a feedback-based content audit, as a good starting place to make improvements to their accessibility webpage before soliciting direct feedback from users with disabilities.
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    Teaching Privacy Using Learner-Centered Practices in a Credit-Bearing Context
    (ACRL, 2023) Young, Scott W. H.; Mannheimer, Sara
    This chapter describes practices of teaching privacy to undergraduate students in a credit-bearing context. The chapter features a discussion of a semester-long course, Information Ethics and Privacy in the Age of Big Data. This chapter opens by briefly outlining three points of consideration for approaching a semester-long course. We then highlight three assignments from the course that we think are particularly useful and adaptable for teaching privacy. We include excerpts from course materials and student feedback to illustrate specific points. The chapter concludes with a self-reflective assessment of our experience as teachers. We co-taught the course with a pedagogical viewpoint of learner-centered participation and trust, an approach that we have previously discussed in detail. The course was built around reflective and co-creative activities that make space for students to bring their own experiences and perspectives into the classroom, including self-evaluation, student-led discussion sessions, small-group discussions, creative activities, and hands-on projects. We intend for the assignments and topics of this chapter to be used beyond a credit-bearing context. Librarians teach in so many different contexts. With that in mind, we offer points of consideration for adapting our assignments for other settings, like workshops, one-shot instruction, or a sequence of course-embedded instruction to be completed over two or three class sessions.
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    Finding Aid Aggregation: Toward a Robust Future
    (Society of American Archivists, 2022-12) Allison-bunnell, Jodi
    Over the last twenty-five years, cultural heritage professionals have formed aggregations—of finding aids, digital object metadata, or related forms of description—in order to overcome barriers to creating and presenting structured, consistent, and interoperable description and to enable expanded access. Now most of these aggregators are struggling to update their infrastructure, meet user needs for access to archival collections, and engage with some of the most promising conceptual, technical, and structural advances in the field. In 2018–2019, the “Toward a National Archival Finding Aid Network” planning initiative identified what aggregation has accomplished, articulated the key challenges facing aggregators, identified which areas could benefit from collaborative work, and created a vision for that work. With the near-completion of a research and demonstration by the California Digital Library, “Building a National Finding Aid Network” (NAFAN), the project and the archival profession have an opportunity to learn from the past and transform access to cultural heritage. However, none of the large-scale aggregations in the United States present a viable model for sustainability. Sustainability will become possible if they overcome the factors that have limited the success of aggregation so far. These include an over-focus on implementing new technical standards and infrastructure and under-focus on the real limitations: lack of knowledge of end user needs and attempting to accomplish too much without the needed resources. By drawing on both the background research described in this article and the further research conducted during the current NAFAN project, this and other cultural heritage enterprises have an opportunity to create a future in which access to cultural heritage is equalized and expanded for both institutions and end users
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    Job Stories: A Creative Tool for Library Service Design and Assessment
    (2022-03) Moorman, Taylor; Young, Scott W.H.
    A job story tells the tale of a user, a task to be completed, and the service used to accomplish that task. The job story can be a helpful design tool for understanding users and improving a service. This method draws from the traditions of agile design, user experience, and service design, and it is now beginning to enter the practice of library and information science. In this article, we introduce the job story for library practitioners. We begin by locating the job story within its wider context of service design tools. We then describe our own experience in creating a job story about a service in our library, including our motivations, process, and results. We conclude with steps for creating your own job story.
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    Bridging the Digital Divide: Wi-Fi Hot Spots as a Means of Digital Equity
    (2022-01) Salsbury, Meghan; Hansen, Mary Anne
    Many areas of the United States still fall short of digital equity and inclusion, defined as the ability of individuals to access and use information and communication technologies to participate fully in society, democracy, and the economy.1 This is especially true in Montana, the authors’ rural state. Only 63.6 percent of Montana citizens have broadband access, and the average cost of the Internet is $91.54 per month—the third highest in the nation.2 The seven American Indian reservations in the state face even more barriers to access, with some having as low as 23 percent of the population with access to broadband.3 The lack of high-speed Internet coupled with the increase of remote learning (and remote work) added stress to many college and university students’ lives as they struggled to complete their coursework during the COVID-19 pandemic. Though no campus entity gathers information about student Internet access, the Montana State University Office of Planning & Analysis reports that 61 percent of the university’s students are Montana residents, and so many face access challenges similar to the rest of the state’s population.4 To ease the digital divide and improve students’ academic success, two Montana State University librarians wrote a successful grant proposal to purchase Wi-Fi hot spots to loan to students with poor or no Internet access. The hot spots were offered to students with high need on medium to long-term checkouts and were initially marketed to programs and services on campus that work closely with underrepresented students.
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    “Broad” Impact: Perceptions of Sex/Gender-Related Psychology Journals
    (Frontiers Media SA, 2022-03-03) Brown, Elizabeth R.; Smith, Jessi L.; Rossmann, Doralyn
    Because men are overrepresented within positions of power, men are perceived as the default in academia (androcentrism). Androcentric bias emerges whereby research by men and/or dominated by men is perceived as higher quality and gains more attention. We examined if these androcentric biases materialize within fields that study bias (psychology). How do individuals in close contact with psychology view psychology research outlets (i.e., journals) with titles including the words women, gender, sex, or feminism (sex/gender-related) or contain the words men or masculinity (men-related; Study 1) versus psychology journals that publish other-specialized research, and do these perceptions differ in the general public? While the men-related journal was less meritorious than its other-specialty journal, evidence emerged supporting androcentric bias such that the men-related journal was more favorable than the other sex/gender-related journals (Study 1). Further, undergraduate men taking psychology classes rated sex/gender-related versus other-specialty journals as less favorable, were less likely to recommend subscription (Studies 1–2), and rated the journals as lower quality (Study 2 only). Low endorsement of feminist ideology was associated with less support for sex/gender-related journals versus matched other-specialty journals (Studies 1–2). Decreased subscription recommendations for sex/gender-related journals (and the men-related journal) were mediated by decreased favorability and quality beliefs, especially for men (for the sex/gender-related journals) and those low in feminist ideology (Studies 1–2). However, we found possible androcentric-interest within the public sphere. The public reach of articles (as determined by Altmetrics) published in sex/gender-related was greater than other-specialty journals (Study 3). The consequences of these differential perceptions for students versus the public and the impact on women’s advancement in social science and psychological science are discussed.
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    Strategies for collaboratively maintaining A- Z lists
    (2021-10) McKelvey, Hannah; Bradley, Star
    This article discusses a project to integrate the management expertise of an Electronic Resources Librarian with the experiences of users, including students and Research & Instruction Librarians, to create a more user-centered A-Z database list. The authors analyzed the database lists of 10 peer institutions that use the Springshare A-Z Database List, gathered data about their own database list, surveyed colleagues, and developed an assignment for two library classes to understand how students and librarians use database lists. The article summarizes their findings and includes recommendations for collaboratively maintaining database lists that can be implemented at any library.
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    Toward A Contemplative Technopedagogy Framework: A Discourse Analysis
    (2020-09) Shanks, Justin D.
    Digital technology features prominently in the higher education ecosystem, affecting the ways in which educators think, communicate, and teach. This research applies discourse analysis to articles published within The Chronicle of Higher Education (CHE) to understand: (1) The ways in which conceptions of digital technology in higher education pedagogy have changed and the ways in which they have remained consistent from 1993 to 2016 and (2) The extent to which CHE articles addressed attributes of contemplation with regard to technopedagogy. Research findings indicate that during the previous 23 years digital technology was portrayed as an overwhelmingly positive addition to higher education pedagogy. Less than half of articles analyzed contained attributes of contemplation. Non-contemplative technopedagogical approaches can lead to uncritical adoption or knee-jerk dismissal of digital technology – either of which can have substantial and long-lasting consequences within teaching-learning environments. Contemporary pedagogies need to pay closer attention to digital technologies, but must do so in a purposeful and engaged manner. This historical and discursive research inductively led to the development of the Contemplative Technopedagogy Framework, which provides an approachable introduction to using attributes of contemplation when making pedagogical decisions about digital technology in higher education.
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    Radical Collaboration: Making the Computational Turn in Special Collections and Archives
    (2019-11) Shanks, Justin D.; Mannheimer, Sara; Clark, Jason A.
    As more archival collections are digitized or born-digital, the work of archivists increasingly overlaps with the work of librarians who are responsible for research data and digital scholarship. This editorial uses Nancy McGovern's idea of radical collaboration as a framework, presenting a case study from Montana State University Library in which we collaborated across the domains of research data management, digital scholarship, archives, and special collections to integrate computational approaches into research, teaching, and service aspects of digital archival collections.
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    The Role of an Electronic Resources Librarian in Procuring Accessible Online Resources
    (2020-06) McKelvey, Hannah
    Per the 2019 NASIG Core Competencies for electronic resources librarians (ERL), ERLs “work with concepts and methods that are very much in flux … [they are] knowledgeable about the legal framework within which libraries and information agencies operate… [including] laws relating to… equal rights (e.g., the Americans with Disabilities Act)”. However, the Core Competencies do not define the level to which an ERL is responsible for determining the accessibility of an electronic resource. This article aims to create a better understanding of the steps an ERL can take to develop an accessibility statement pertaining to procuring accessible content. This article synthesizes key laws and policies that ERLs should be aware of in order to draft an accessibility procurement statement for their institution. It will also discuss licensing strategies, documentation collection, and conducting potential audits of electronic purchases.
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    Out-of-the-Box Library Marketing: Examining Third-Party Materials that Promote Electronic Resources
    (2020) McKelvey, Hannah; McClain, Rachelle
    With so many online resources at our fingertips, balancing the brand identity of libraries and third-party resource providers has long been a concern. Existing research addresses the impact of promotional materials branded by third-party resource providers with little customizable space for libraries to add their brands. This article complements past research by reviewing the effectiveness of physical and digital marketing materials created by library resource providers to help libraries market their electronic content. We assess the contents of these marketing toolkits and survey librarians at academic, public, medical, law, and other types of libraries about how they use these promotional items, asking them to comment on their design and to express how well these materials link resources such as databases to the library.
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    Spectral Tales: Lessons Learned from Being Ghosted by Faculty
    (2020-11) Owens, Tammi M.; Salsbury, Meghan; Blackburn, Heidi
    Imagine building a great online module or LibGuide only to have the collaborating faculty vanish after it is finished. Or designing an awesome student or faculty workshop as part of a campus-wide series only to have an empty classroom. Faculty who are gone with the wind after the tutorial is created make assessment and feedback nearly impossible. Furthermore, how can meaningful data be gathered from a workshop with just one participant? Libraries need to have supportive cultures and assessment plans in place for the times when labor-intensive projects fail due to outside variables. Designing thoughtful and engaging curriculum should not be dismissed merely because students did not show up. Unsuccessful instruction attempts, whether current experiences or attempts by predecessors, should not keep librarians from seeking best practices, implementing an action plan, and continuing to provide quality library interactions with faculty and students on campus. Since the original 2017 Brick & Click presentation on the hard lessons learned after being ghosted, the presenting librarians have implemented new workflow policies, procedures and assessment methods to protect their limited time and resources while ensuring they remain student-focused organizations. They will pass on the smart steps taken to keep relationships strong in the library and across campus.
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    An analysis of use and performance data aggregated from 35 institutional repositories
    (2020-11) Arlitsch, Kenning; Wheeler, Jonathan; Pham, Minh Thi Ngoc; Parulian, Nikolaus Nova
    Purpose This study demonstrates that aggregated data from the Repository Analytics and Metrics Portal (RAMP) have significant potential to analyze visibility and use of institutional repositories (IR) as well as potential factors affecting their use, including repository size, platform, content, device and global location. The RAMP dataset is unique and public. Design/methodology/approach The webometrics methodology was followed to aggregate and analyze use and performance data from 35 institutional repositories in seven countries that were registered with the RAMP for a five-month period in 2019. The RAMP aggregates Google Search Console (GSC) data to show IR items that surfaced in search results from all Google properties. Findings The analyses demonstrate large performance variances across IR as well as low overall use. The findings also show that device use affects search behavior, that different content types such as electronic thesis and dissertation (ETD) may affect use and that searches originating in the Global South show much higher use of mobile devices than in the Global North. Research limitations/implications The RAMP relies on GSC as its sole data source, resulting in somewhat conservative overall numbers. However, the data are also expected to be as robot free as can be hoped. Originality/value This may be the first analysis of aggregate use and performance data derived from a global set of IR, using an openly published dataset. RAMP data offer significant research potential with regard to quantifying and characterizing variances in the discoverability and use of IR content.
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    Improving Onboarding with Employee Experience Journey Mapping: A Fresh Take on a Traditional UX Technique
    (2018-09) McKelvey, Hannah; Frank, Jacqueline
    We present a creative method for applying the UX technique of journey mapping to improve the onboarding experience of new employees in any organization. Journey mapping is a well-known design research tool used to gain insight into how a user experiences a service, process, or product, with the goal of making informed improvements to deliver a better experience for future users. We argue that journey mapping can also be used to improve the internal process of onboarding new employees and improve the experience for future new hires, which is important because positive onboarding experiences are linked to increased productivity and greater employee retention. We share how other organizations can use journey mapping to improve the onboarding process utilizing our employee experience journey mapping project toolkit (Frank & McKelvey, 2017) designed to help guide similar projects, complete with shareable templates. In addition, we share the methods used at our library, as well as our findings, recommendations, and lessons learned.
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    Beyond Therapy Dogs: Rethinking Animal Policies to Protect and Promote Student Wellness for All Library Users
    (2020) Frank, Jacqueline
    This chapter presents options for rethinking and communicating animal policies to protect and promote wellness for all library patrons and suggests considering a responsive approach to educating users about library policies in order to help protect the rights of people with service animals, while also promoting a welcoming environment that supports student success, health, and wellness. The chapter includes a case study of the successful therapy dog program at the Montana State University (MSU) Library and shares educational handouts outlining the definitions and distinctions between service animals, therapy animals, and comfort animals (also called emotional support animals, or ESAs). The case study examines unintended and correlated impacts of the program, including an increase in people bringing pets into the library, and how challenges such as underprepared employees and unclear policies and procedures were addressed at the MSU Library.
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    Applying Attributes of Contemplative Technopedagogy to a Social Media Assignment
    (2019-06) Shanks, Justin D.; Young, Scott W. H.
    With widespread prevalence of digital technology in contemporary higher education, researchers have been keen to identify best practices and understand impacts. Social media present opportunities to cultivate interactive, creative teaching-learning communities. However, inclusion of social media in a course does not necessarily equal deep or creative student engagement. Faculty play an important role in helping students critically and creatively engage with content, colleagues, and context. Utilizing a mixed-methods case study approach, this research explores how contemplative technopedagogy can aid in the development of social media assignments and positively influence student learning. While blogging has been studied as a pedagogical tool, Tumblr has not yet been studied as an educational technology. This research demonstrates how the integration of contemplative technopedagogical attributes can aid faculty in developing social media assignments with contextual awareness that enhance teaching and learning in contemporary higher education.
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    Quantifying Scientific Jargon
    (SAGE Publications, 2020-07) Willoughby, Shannon D.; Johnson, Keith; Sterman, Leila
    When scientists disseminate their work to the general public, excessive use of jargon should be avoided because if too much technical language is used, the message is not effectively conveyed. However, determining which words are jargon and how much jargon is too much is a difficult task, partly because it can be challenging to know which terms the general public knows, and partly that it can be challenging to ensure scientific accuracy while avoiding esoteric terminology. To help address this issue, we have written an R script that an author can use to quantify the amount of scientific jargon in any written piece and make appropriate edits based on the target audience.
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    Using the Balanced Scorecard as a Framework for Strategic Planning and Organizational Change
    (2020) Johnson, Kris; Arlitsch, Kenning; Kyrillidou, Martha; Swedman, David
    Strategic planning processes offer an opportunity to connect foundational practices with a vision for future change. In this chapter, Kotter’s eight stages of change are mapped to the Montana State University Library’s strategic planning effort (September 2017– February 2018). Montana State University (MSU) is a land-grant public research university located in Bozeman, Montana. It is listed in the Carnegie Classification as a doctoral-granting university with “Higher Research Activity,” and with a head count of nearly 17,000 students in Fall 2018, it is by far the largest institution of higher education in Montana. The university’s annual budget is $201 million, and research and development expenditures exceeded $126 million in 2018. In addition to having its teaching and research missions, MSU is also one of 359 universities in the US awarded Carnegie’s community engagement classification.
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