Scholarly Work - Business

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    Can We Talk About Pay Discrimination/Equal Pay/Strategic Compensation Practices? An Exploratory Study on Framing Gender Pay Inequity
    (Cambridge University Press, 2023-01) Raile, Amber N.W.; Graham Austin, Caroline; Bratton, Virginia K.
    Situated within the public will and political will framework, this paper explores frames to address the social issue of gender pay inequity. Specifically, the authors examine whether demographic characteristics affect perceived acceptability of different frames describing gender pay inequity and perceptions of this social issue. First, the authors identified 26 terms used to discuss gender pay inequity; this list was narrowed to 12, representing four categories. Next, the authors solicited sentiment reactions to those frames and perceptions of gender pay inequity. Taken together, the results indicated that although respondents had consistently positive reactions to the frames fair pay, equal pay, and pay fairness, perceptions varied across demographic groups. The biggest effects were consistently for political party-related variables. One frame, strategic compensation practices, emerged as a value-neutral frame that could potentially be used to reframe the issue and re-engage business and political stakeholders who do not perceive gender pay inequity as problematic.
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    Augmented digital human vs. human agents in storytelling marketing: Exploratory electroencephalography and experimental studies
    (Wiley, 2023-09) Sung, Eunyoung (Christine); Han, Dai‐In Danny; Choi, Yung Kyun; Gillespie, Brian; Couperus, Anja; Koppert, Marc
    As the fourth industrial revolution unfolds and the use of digital humans becomes more commonplace, understanding digital humans' potential to replace real human interaction or enhance it, particularly in storytelling marketing contexts, is becoming evermore important. To promote interaction and increase the entertainment value of technology-enhanced storytelling marketing, brands have begun to explore the use of augmented digital humans as storytelling agents. In this article, we examine the effectiveness of leveraging advanced technologies and delivering messages via digital humans in storytelling advertisements. In Study 1, we investigate the effectiveness of narrative transportation on behavioral responses after exposure to an interactive augmented reality mobile advertisement with a digital human storyteller. In Study 2, we compare how consumers respond to augmented digital human versus real human storytelling advertisements after conducting an exploratory neurophysiological electroencephalography study. The findings show that both types of agents promote narrative transportation when the story fits the product well. Moreover, a digital human perceived as more human-like elicits stronger positive consumer responses, suggesting an effective new approach to storytelling marketing.
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    Simulating a sterilization processing department to evaluate block schedules and tray configurations
    (Wiley, 2023-06) Harris, Sean; Nino, Valentina; Claudio, David
    Discrete event simulation is a well-established tool for examining the effect of different operating room (OR) block schedules on various performance metrics within the OR suite and adjacent units. However, one unit that has rarely been studied is the sterilization processing department (SPD), which cleans and assembles reusable OR instruments. As part of a larger research study, we developed a series of OR block assignment models that sought to reduce the workload of the SPD and developed a tray optimization model to reduce the number of instruments on increasingly bloated instrument trays. While initial numerical experiments were promising, a comprehensive simulation model of the OR and SPD was needed to more thoroughly examine how potential changes to the block schedule and/or more efficient tray configurations could improve SPD processing times. In this article, we incorporate the SPD into an existing simulation model of an OR suite, which is the first of its kind, and examine the effect that different block schedules and tray configurations have on SPD processing times. Simulation results confirm earlier numerical computations. Furthermore, simulation results suggest that more efficient instrument tray configurations are a much better and more viable method for improving SPD processing time than reconfiguring block schedules.
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    Buyer-seller negotiation in consumer markets: an intention congruence approach
    (Emerald, 2023-06) Shehryar, Omar
    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to understand how the degree of congruence between buyers’ and sellers’ intentions to negotiate impacts buyers’ postpurchase emotions and attitudes. In addition, the study examines whether buyers’ self-confidence and negotiation expertise can increase buyers’ perceptions of control and regret, as well as buyers’ postpurchase satisfaction and enjoyment with the purchase. Traditionally, marketplace exchanges have been classified as either fixed price or negotiated. The present research treats marketplace exchanges along a continuum of intention congruence to test the relationships between intention congruence and outcome variables of control, regret, satisfaction and enjoyment with the purchase. Design/methodology/approach. The authors studied the perceived difference between buyers' and sellers' intentions to negotiate and how the difference impacts buyers' postpurchase attitudinal and emotional outcomes. A mail survey of automobile buyers resulted in a sample of 291 respondents. An automobile is a significant and irreversible purchase for a buyer. Thus, automobile markets often host transactions that evoke dissonance and regret for buyers if things go awry. In addition, buyers and sellers vary considerably in their desire to negotiate, thus reflecting a range of intention congruence in negotiation. Therefore, a survey of automobile buyers was considered appropriate for testing the effects of intention congruence on buyers’ postpurchase outcomes. Findings. Results indicate that when buyers are willing to negotiate but sellers do not reciprocate equally, buyers feel less in control of a transaction. Contrarily, buyers experienced greater control and lesser regret when buyers’ perceptions of sellers’ intention to negotiate exceeded buyers’ own intentions to negotiate. Results also suggest that when buyers’ intentions to negotiate were congruent with buyers’ perception of sellers’ intention to negotiate, greater dyadic levels of negotiation marginally lowered buyers’ perceived regret. Overall, an intention-congruence perspective adds to the current understanding of negotiated exchanges and is a meaningful approach for improving postpurchase outcomes for buyers. Research limitations/implications. The study used only the consumers’ perspective of negotiation. Although this is supported by studies in power and dependence because the consumers’ perspective is valuable and valid, a true dyadic measurement of the negotiation process can only be obtained if the sellers’ view is also incorporated. This remains a key limitation of this study. Practical implications. The results suggest that sellers may be better off honoring buyers’ intentions to negotiate. Intention incongruence negatively impacted buyer satisfaction when buyers perceived sellers to be less eager to negotiate. However, where sellers seem more eager to negotiate, incongruity favored buyers and positively impacted buyers’ postpurchase outcomes. Thus, for sellers, it is worthwhile to consider adding policies that honor negotiation. Originality/value. Past research classifies marketplaces exchanges as either fixed price or negotiated. The present study uses intention congruence as a continuum between transaction partners. The intention congruence approach allows a closer examination of both the symmetry and strength of intentions to negotiate in a dyadic exchange. Given that markets are comprised of buyers and sellers who display considerable variability in intentions to negotiate, examining intention congruence allows for a more realistic study of negotiation behavior in business-to-consumer marketplaces.
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    NFT luxury brand marketing in the metaverse: Leveraging blockchain‐certified NFTs to drive consumer behavior
    (Wiley, 2023-06) Sung, Eunyoung (Christine); Kwon, Ohbyung; Sohn, Kwonsang
    Industry 4.0 technology enables luxury fashion brands in the virtual market to quantify the value of digital items in the metaverse; thus, brands can maintain their reputations, ensure consistent and integrated luxury brand marketing, and attract new consumers in the virtual market. Understanding consumer behavior toward buying digital assets (i.e., nonfungible tokens [NFTs]) is important. By using blockchain-based NFTs as a way to verify the authenticity of digital assets in the virtual market, luxury brands can maintain their reputations and help consumers protect their digital assets. Thus, developing global marketing strategies supported by this technology is important for the success of luxury fashion brands in the metaverse. We conducted analyses to explore consumer behavior in the metaverse with regard to blockchain-based luxury NFTs. The findings reveal the psychological evaluation process as a mechanism that drives consumer behavior toward NFT luxury brand fashion items in global virtual markets. The empirical findings also extend the application of game theory and prospect theory by revealing the psychological evaluation of risks associated with (not) buying luxury fashion NFTs as another mechanism driving consumer behavior in the metaverse.
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    This ad’s for you: how personalized SNS advertisements affect the consumer–brand relationship
    (Emerald, 2023-03) Tran, Trang; Sen, Sandipan; Van Steenburg, Eric
    Purpose. Firms can now access users’ digital histories due to advances in technology and deliver personalized recommendations through social network sites (SNS) such as Facebook that offers advanced targeting options and reliable conversion tracking. This paper aims to examine the effects of personalized advertisements on SNS on the relationship between consumers and brands, tests the impact of brand attachment and experience on brand equity through personalized SNS ads and investigates the influence of such ads on branded products and services. Design/methodology/approach. Two studies were conducted. Study 1 (n = 275) was a survey-based design that leveraged structural equation modeling to test the hypotheses, while Study 2 (n = 350) used experimental design to compare two groups who saw service brand ads versus those who saw product brand ads. Findings. Results showed that SNS ads supporting the brand had a significant positive impact on respondents’ brand attachment and brand experience. In both studies, brand experience positively impacted all the elements of brand equity, while brand attachment was found to impact brand loyalty. Originality/value. The findings illustrate how personalized ads for brands appearing on SNS can change consumer perceptions, thus affecting the consumer–brand relationship. The results bode well for brands considering leveraging SNS in their marketing mix, particularly when the strategy behind the advertising is brand building.
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    Dodd–Frank 's impact on community‐bank investment models: A Bayesian structural time series analysis
    (Wiley, 2022-10) Lee, Yen Teik; Caton, Gary L.; Gamble, Edward N.; Kerins, Francis
    We use Bayesian structural time series (BSTS) methodology to test whether the Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (DF) caused changes in community bank business models. The BSTS methodology uses the pre-DF period to create synthetic counterfactuals for community-bank dependent variables of interest. In the post-DF period, the counterfactuals become predictions of the dependent variables had DF not been enacted. Comparing post-DF predicted versus actual dependent variables allows us to estimate the causal impact of DF on these variables of interest. We find that relative to assets, community banks significantly reduce their lending activities and significantly increase investment in securities and excess reserves.
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    The new world of philanthropy: How changing financial behavior, public policies, and COVID ‐19 affect nonprofit fundraising and marketing
    (Wiley, 2022-06) Van Steenburg, Eric; Anaza, Nwamaka A.; Ashhar, Ahmed; Barrios, Andres; Deutsch, Ashley R.; Gardner, Meryl P.; Priya, Preeti; Roy, Abhijit; Sivaraman, Anu; Taylor, Kimberly A.
    Evolving financial behavior, an unpredictable public policy atmosphere, and an unparalleled global pandemic have collaborated to disrupt nonprofit fundraising. The COVID-19 pandemic alone exacerbated consumer demands for nonprofit services while curtailing nonprofit organizations' ability to fundraise. Without fundraising, nonprofit organizations cannot achieve their mission or support their causes, leading to a precarious situation for societal well-being. Meanwhile, consumers are changing their financial behaviors, with younger generations often going cashless. At the same time, governments continue to change policies that affect nonprofit organizations. In keeping with the transformative consumer research movement, the present study provides a conceptual framework for the state of nonprofit fundraising amid the challenges associated with changes in financial behavior and public policy, coupled with the effects of the global pandemic. Marketing strategies for fundraising success are presented to aid nonprofits going forward and serve societal interests.
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    An empirical comparison of the Extended Parallel Process Model with the Terror Management Health Model
    (Oxford University Press, 2022-08) Hunt, David M; Shehryar, Omar
    The Extended Parallel Process Model posits that fear-appeal messages are processed only when message recipients perceive a critical level of threat. The more recent Terror Management Health Model suggests that, in addition to level of perceived threat, the nature of the threat also influences how target audiences process fear appeals. Specifically, fear appeals that utilize the threat of death as a consequence trigger both conscious and nonconscious responses that influence message recipients’ health-related decisions. Accounting for the influence of consciousness of death helps explain maladaptive responses that extant theory has been unable to explain. Results from an experiment indicate that, when the level of perceived fear was the same across participants, the Extended Parallel Process Model successfully predicted persuasive outcomes for fear appeals that utilized the threat of arrest or serious injury as a consequence of noncompliance. However, for fear appeals that utilized the threat of death as a consequence of noncompliance, as predicted by the Terror Management Health Model, ego involvement in the health-related behavior predicted persuasive outcomes more accurately than the dual fear control and danger control processes. These findings suggest that incorporating consciousness of death and ego involvement can avoid conceptual problems with the level-of-fear construct, provide a meaningful way to predict fear-appeal responses across target audiences, and explain maladaptive responses that have eluded the explanations of extant fear-appeal theories.
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    How preexisting beliefs and message involvement drive charitable donations: an integrated model
    (Emerald, 2021-12) Van Steenburg, Eric; Spears, Nancy
    Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how individuals respond to messages asking for donations in broadcast advertising. It does so by considering both preexisting attitudes and beliefs related to donating, as well as message processing. The goal is to uncover messages that may help nonprofit organisations increase donations. Design/methodology/approach. The research combines the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to measure preexisting beliefs and the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) to measure involvement in an investigation of donation responses to broadcast-quality advertisements developed by a professional ad agency featuring the following two messages: one that leverages social norms and another that legitimises minimal giving. Two studies collected data from a total of 544 respondents in two between-subjects 2 × 2 × 2 experiments. Findings. Injunctive norm messages affect the intended donation behaviour of individuals who are pre-disposed to donating, but only if they are highly involved with the ad. Social legitimisation messages affect donations from individuals who look to referents to direct behaviour, but unlike what was expected, only by those not highly involved with the ad. Similarly, individuals who do not think they can donate increased donations when they saw the legitimisation message and had low advertisement involvement. Research limitations/implications. Results extend the ELM-TPB integrated framework by discovering when and how involvement drives intended donation behaviour. The research also sheds light on message processing by focussing on the preexisting characteristics of recipients. Practical implications. The results provide nonprofit managers with strategies to increase donations with targeted messages. Those who pay attention to the ad and have a positive attitude toward giving are going to donate if they are told others support the cause. Therefore, the focus should be on those who are not involved with the ad but still believe giving is appropriate. Originality/value. This research is the first to use the ELM-TPB framework to discover that ELM has varying utilities and values from TPB in different ad contexts.
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    What do female and male entrepreneurs value in business accelerators?
    (Emerald, 2021-09) Kwapisz, Agnieszka
    Purpose. Business accelerators facilitate new venture creation, and most research on the subject focuses on the performance of accelerated ventures. This paper aims to understand what entrepreneurs value in business accelerators and how this differs for women- and men-led ventures. The authors suggest that venture growth stage may play a mediating role in these relationships. Design/methodology/approach. The authors use the resource-based view perspective to develop models of women- and men-led ventures’ valuation for business accelerator services. They also draw upon a database of 2,000 US entrepreneurs. Findings. The authors found that, compared to men, women entrepreneurs place greater value on knowledge transfer benefits (i.e. business skills education) but lower value on networking benefits offered by accelerators. However, there are no significant differences in the valuations for these services between genders for high-growth ventures. Additionally, compared to men, women leading high-growth ventures place greater value on access to potential investors or funders. Practical implications. This research serves as a practical guide for accelerator administrators and marketers who seek to adjust their business support offerings based on the value placed for the services by different populations of entrepreneurs. Originality/value. The authors provide a business accelerator user’s perspective and highlight differences in valuation of accelerator services by women- and men-led ventures at different stages of venture growth.
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    Nested-solution facility location models
    (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-06) McGarvey, Ronald G.; Thorsen, Andreas
    Classical facility location models can generate solutions that do not maintain consistency in the set of utilized facilities as the number of utilized facilities is varied. We introduce the concept of nested facility locations, in which the solution utilizing p facilities is a subset of the solution utilizing q facilities, for all i ≤ p < q ≤ j, given some lower limit i and upper limit j on r, the number of facilities that will be utilized in the future. This approach is demonstrated with application to the p-median model, with computational testing showing these new models achieve reductions in both average regret and worst-case regret when r 6 = p facilities are actually utilized.
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    Electric bike-sharing services mode substitution for driving, public transit, and cycling
    (Elsevier BV, 2021-07) Bielińsk, Tomasz; Kwapisz, Agnieszka; Ważna, Agnieszka
    In hopes of reducing traffic congestion, air and noise pollution, and energy consumption, bike sharing is becoming increasingly popular around the world. Underlying many of the benefits attributed to bike sharing is an assumption that bike share journeys replace a significant proportion of trips previously made by car. This paper examines factors correlated with the use of an electric bike-sharing system in Tricity, Poland. We use the double hurdle estimation approach on data from two matched surveys: before and after the implementation of the system. Our analyses indicate that electric bike rides did not act as a substitute for car trips. Shared e- bikes were used by residents as a substitute for public transportation or as a first/last mile of transport to/from public transportation stops. We examined the use of e-bikes for various types of trips and identified factors encouraging and discouraging people from usage of bike-sharing and cycling in general.
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    Political Polarization: Challenges, Opportunities, and Hope for Consumer Welfare, Marketers, and Public Policy
    (SAGE Publications, 2021-03) Weber, T.J.; Hydock, Chris; Ding, William; Gardner, Meryl; Jacob, Pradeep; Mandel, Naomi; Sprott, David E.; Van Steenburg, Eric
    Political polarization is a marked political division in the population, characterized by multiple manifestations. The authors argue that it can affect consumer psychology, which in turn influences marketers, policy makers, and consumer welfare. The present work introduces the construct of political polarization to the marketing literature and shows how it serves as a novel challenge for various marketing stakeholders. For consumers, the authors propose that political polarization increases the salience of political identities, alters inter- and intragroup dynamics, and amplifies cognitive biases. These effects negatively affect consumer welfare, including financial welfare, relationships, mental and physical health, and societal interests. For marketers, polarization introduces a challenge to both be more sociopolitically engaged while also navigating competing political interests. Polarization also creates new opportunities and challenges for segmentation, targeting, loyalty, and product offerings. For policy makers, political polarization creates policy gaps, impedes the implementation of policy, and obstructs governance. Building from these insights, the authors consider the drawbacks and overlooked benefits of political polarization, potential remedies, and directions for future research.
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    Women and the weight of a pandemic: A survey of four Western US states early in the Coronavirus outbreak
    (Wiley, 2020-12) Raile, Amber N. W.; Raile, Eric D.; Parker, David C.W.; Shanahan, Elizabeth A.; Haines, Pavielle
    In the initial months of the COVID-19 outbreak in the United States, people struggled to adjust to the new normal. The burden of managing changes to home and work life seemed to fall disproportionately to women due to the nature of women's employment and gendered societal pressures. We surveyed residents of four western states in the first months of the outbreak to compare the experiences of women and men during this time. We found that women were disproportionately vulnerable to workplace disruptions, negative impacts on daily life, and increased mental load. Women with children and women who lost their jobs were particularly impacted. These results contribute to the growing body of findings about the disproportionate impacts of crises on women and should inform organizational and government policies to help mitigate these impacts and to enhance societal resilience in future emergencies.
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    When Best Intentions Fail: Why Ads May Fall Short in Combating Islamophobia
    (2020-05) Van Steenburg, Eric
    Increasing crimes against Muslims are evidence that Muslim Americans are being targeted, while political and media rhetoric has aided the rise of Islamophobia. In response, the Council on American-Islamic Relations initiated an advertising campaign to reframe the discourse. Relying on terror management theory as a foundation, this research leverages a sequential mixed-method approach to evaluate and analyze the ads, bringing together concepts of rhetorical articulation of politics, discourse analysis of media-based rhetoric, and complicity theory related to racism to understand contemporary political framing of Islam. A quantitative study determined one’s religious fundamentalism had an effect on the viewer’s attitude toward the ads. This was followed by a qualitative analysis of the ads based on Stern’s approach to advertisement critique. Triangulated results show that the ads reinforce cultural worldviews that frame Muslims as “other” that could entrench existing attitudes toward Muslim Americans. Suggestions are made for future advertising efforts to reframe the discussion.
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    What Motivates Scientists in Emerging Economies to Become Entrepreneurs? Evidence from Vietnam
    (2020-02) Nguyen, Thang; Nguyen, Lan; Bryant, Scott E.; Nguyen, Hieu
    Studies of scientist entrepreneurship have recognized a diverse range of proself motivations but have largely ignored the role of prosocial motivation. As technology inventions often bring in high positive externality, we argue that prosocial motivation is important for scientist entrepreneurship and sustainable development. Drawing from motivated information processing theory we develop a model linking proself and prosocial motivation with scientist entrepreneurship. The hypotheses were tested based on survey data from a sample of Vietnamese scientists. The results show that both proself and prosocial motivation are positively associated with scientist entrepreneurship. However, the positive association between prosocial motivation and scientist entrepreneurship is lessened by proself motivation. This study calls for more attention to prosocial motivation in theory and policy development on scientist entrepreneurship.
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    International expansion of retailers: the role of technical expertise, alliances and allocation of resources in economic crises
    (2019-05) Sung, Eunyoung (Christine); Goebel, Tai
    Economic downturns are often viewed as threats to prosperity and the challenges they can pose for international retailers are well documented. However, the potential opportunities of economic downturns are less well understood. In this paper, we ask whether or how these environments might actually afford occasions for strategic market adjustment, in the form of international expansion to new markets. Specifically, drawing on resource-based theory and game theory, we consider how a firm\'s financial performance during international expansion in a downturn may be predicted by its engagement in three modes of knowledge transfer. We consider knowledge transfer enabled by: 1) long-term investment in technical expertise; 2) formation of alliances in the local target market; 3) focused allocation of firm resources. Based on cases from the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis, the 2007 US recession and the 2009 European Sovereign Debt Crisis, we developed propositions to guide future research on international expansion during economic downturns.
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    Bike-Sharing Systems in Poland
    (2019-04) Bielinski, Tomasz; Kwapisz, Agnieszka; Wazna, Agnieszka
    Bike-sharing is widely recognized as an eco-friendly mode of transportation and seen as one of the solutions to the problem of air pollution and congestion. As there is little research exploring the performance of bicycle-sharing systems (BSS), many municipal authorities invest in their development without knowledge of their effectiveness. Therefore, the aim of this article is to identify factors that correlate with BSS performance. Data related to BSS and urban characteristics were collected for the 56 cities in Poland, which is the population of BSS systems in this country. The Ordinary Least Square regression model was used to estimate the model. Additionally, to support our findings, a survey of 3631 cyclists was conducted. Our main findings show that BSS performance was positively related to cities’ population, tourism, number of bike stations per capita, congestion, bicycle pathways’ length and higher temperature, and negatively related to precipitation. We have also found that one BSS operator was more effective compared to the others.
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    Motivators of Prestige Brand Purchase: Testing Cultural (In)stability of Measures Over Time Across the United States, Poland, and South Korea
    (2019) Sung, Eunyoung (Christine); Calantone, R.; Huddleston, Patricia
    This paper encompasses two studies of how cultural dimensions help us understand consumers’ motivations to buy prestige brands in the global market. In Study 1, we investigated the effects of social interaction factors on prestige brand purchase in the U.S., Poland, and South Korea. The study model was conceptualized using individualism as a cultural characteristic, drawn from Hofstede’s cultural dimension theory. Consumers from these three countries represented high, medium, and low levels of individualism (N=1816). Two data analysis procedures were conducted. After strict measurement equivalence tests, we tested our SEM and confirmed that public self-image mediates the relationship between social belonging and prestige brand purchase preference. For two countries, we found differences in social belonging effect, such that consumers with low social belonging were more likely to show high prestige brand purchase behavior. In Study 2, we tested cultural (in)stability of measures (motivators) over time using two data sets (total N= 3,622). Of these countries, we found that only South Korea has shifted its values over time and demonstrated intergenerational differences in prestige brand purchase preference.
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