Metabolomic and elemental profiling of blood serum in bladder cancer


Bladder cancer (BC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed types of urinary cancer. Despite advances in treatment methods, no specific biomarkers are currently in use. Targeted and untargeted profiling of metabolites and elements of human blood serum from 100 BC patients and the same number of normal controls (NCs), with external validation, was attempted using three analytical methods, i.e., nuclear magnetic resonance, gold and silver-109 nanoparticle-based laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS), and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). All results were subjected to multivariate statistical analysis. Four potential serum biomarkers of BC, namely, isobutyrate, pyroglutamate, choline, and acetate, were quantified with proton nuclear magnetic resonance, which had excellent predictive ability as judged by the area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.999. Two elements, Li and Fe, were also found to distinguish between cancer and control samples, as judged from ICP-OES data and AUC of 0.807 (in validation set). Twenty-five putatively identified compounds, mostly related to glycans and lipids, differentiated BC from NCs, as detected using LDI-MS. Five serum metabolites were found to discriminate between tumor grades and nine metabolites between tumor stages. The results from three different analytical platforms demonstrate that the identified distinct serum metabolites and metal elements have potential to be used for noninvasive detection, staging, and grading of BC.



Bladder cancer, Biomarkers, Human serum, Metallomics, Metabolomics


Metabolomic and elemental profiling of blood serum in bladder cancer
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