Raman vibrations and photovoltaic conversion in rare earth doped (Bi 0.93 RE 0.07 )FeO 3 (RE=Dy, Gd, Eu, Sm) ceramics
Schmidt, V. Hugo
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High-resolution Raman spectra, X-ray diffraction, oxygen vacancies, synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy, magnetization, optical band gap, and photovoltaic (PV) conversion have been studied in BiFeO3 (BFO) and (Bi0.93RE0.07)FeO3 (RE=Dy, Gd, Eu and Sm) multiferroic ceramics (7%Dy–BFO, 7%Gd–BFO, 7%Eu–BFO, and 7%Sm–BFO). 7%Dy–BFO exhibits a weak ferromagnetic behavior instead of the linear antiferromagnetic responses found in the other compounds. Optical transmissions reveal band gaps of 2.20–2.21 eV, which are slightly smaller than 2.24 eV in pure BFO. The current vs. voltage (I–V) characteristic curves of indium tin oxide (ITO)/(Bi0.93RE0.07)FeO3 ceramics/Au heterostructures suggest a p–n-junction-like behavior. The maximal PV power-conversion efficiencies under illumination of λ=405 nm in ITO/7%Dy–BFO/Au, ITO/7%Gd–BFO/Au, ITO/7%Eu–BFO/Au, and ITO/7%Sm–BFO/Au respectively reach 0.22%, 0.35%, 0.27%, and 0.24%, which are much larger than 0.017% in ITO/BFO/Au. The PV open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current can be reasonably described by a junction model as a function of illumination intensity.
L.-Y. Chang, C.-S. Tu, P.-Y. Chen, C.-S. Chen, V.H. Schmidt, H.-H. Wei, D.-J. Huang, and T.-S. Chan, “Raman vibrations and photovoltaic conversion in rare earth doped (Bi 0.93 RE 0.07 )FeO 3 (RE=Dy, Gd, Eu, Sm) ceramics,” Ceramics International 42, 834-842 (2016). doi: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2015.09.005.